The occurrence of xanthin calculi in the kidneys of sheep on certain poor pastures on the Moutere Hills in the Nelson district is reported and described. The incidence of xanthin calculi is associated with poor stock results over large areas. Poor lambing returns, high mortality of stock in certain seasons, low milk yields and inability to fatten stock are common features of many farms on the Moutere Hills soil. On one small farm, grazing 120 sheep, no less than 12 sheep which have died or have been killed during the last six months have had calculi in the kidneys.
The Moutere Hills soil type is shown to be highly deficient in both lime and phosphate. Great increase in crop production invariably accompanies the application of lime and phosphate to the land.