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Modern corporations contribute to a wide range of contemporary problems, including income inequality, global warming, and the influence of money in politics. Their relentless pursuit of profits, though, is the natural outcome of the doctrine of shareholder primacy. As the consensus around this doctrine crumbles, it has become increasingly clear that the prerogatives of corporate governance have been improperly limited to shareholders. It is time to examine shareholder primacy and its attendant governance features anew, and reorient the literature around the basic purpose of corporations. This book critically examines the current state of corporate governance law and provides decisive rebuttals to longstanding arguments for the exclusive shareholder franchise. Reconstructing the Corporation presents a new model of corporate governance - one that builds on the theory of the firm as well as a novel theory of democratic participation - to support the extension of the corporate franchise to employees.
A Canadian outbreak investigation into a cluster of Escherichia coli O121 was initiated in late 2016. When initial interviews using a closed-ended hypothesis-generating questionnaire did not point to a common source, cases were centrally re-interviewed using an open-ended approach. The open-ended interviews led cases to describe exposures with greater specificity, as well as food preparation activities. Data collected supported hypothesis generation, particularly with respect to flour exposures. In March 2017, an open sample of Brand X flour from a case home, and a closed sample collected at retail of the same brand and production date, tested positive for the outbreak strain of E. coli O121. In total, 76% (16/21) of cases reported that they used or probably used Brand X flour or that it was used or probably was used in the home during their exposure period. Crucial hypothesis-generating techniques used during the course of the investigation included a centralised open-ended interviewing approach and product sampling from case homes. This was the first outbreak investigation in Canada to identify flour as the source of infection.
Impairment in reciprocal social behavior (RSB), an essential component of early social competence, clinically defines autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the behavioral and genetic architecture of RSB in toddlerhood, when ASD first emerges, has not been fully characterized. We analyzed data from a quantitative video-referenced rating of RSB (vrRSB) in two toddler samples: a community-based volunteer research registry (n = 1,563) and an ethnically diverse, longitudinal twin sample ascertained from two state birth registries (n = 714). Variation in RSB was continuously distributed, temporally stable, significantly associated with ASD risk at age 18 months, and only modestly explained by sociodemographic and medical factors (r2 = 9.4%). Five latent RSB factors were identified and corresponded to aspects of social communication or restricted repetitive behaviors, the two core ASD symptom domains. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated substantial heritability for all factors at age 24 months (h2 ≥ .61). Genetic influences strongly overlapped across all factors, with a social motivation factor showing evidence of newly-emerging genetic influences between the ages of 18 and 24 months. RSB constitutes a heritable, trait-like competency whose factorial and genetic structure is generalized across diverse populations, demonstrating its role as an early, enduring dimension of inherited variation in human social behavior. Substantially overlapping RSB domains, measurable when core ASD features arise and consolidate, may serve as markers of specific pathways to autism and anchors to inform determinants of autism's heterogeneity.
Infants with single ventricle following stage I palliation are at risk for poor nutrition and growth failure. We hypothesise a standardised enteral feeding protocol for these infants that will result in a more rapid attainment of nutritional goals without an increased incidence of gastrointestinal co-morbidities.
Materials and methods:
Single-centre cardiac ICU, prospective case series with historical comparisons. Feeding cohort consisted of consecutive patients with a single ventricle admitted to cardiac ICU over 18 months following stage I palliation (n = 33). Data were compared with a control cohort and admitted to the cardiac ICU over 18 months before feeding protocol implementation (n = 30). Feeding protocol patients were randomised: (1) protocol with cerebro-somatic near-infrared spectroscopy feeding advancement criteria (n = 17) or (2) protocol without cerebro-somatic near-infrared spectroscopy feeding advancement criteria (n = 16).
Median time to achieve goal enteral volume was significantly higher in the control compared to feeding cohort. There were no significant differences in enteral feeds being held for feeding intolerance or necrotising enterocolitis between cohorts. Feeding cohort had significant improvements in discharge nutritional status (weight, difference admit to discharge weight, weight-for-age z score, volume, and caloric enteral nutrition) and late mortality compared to the control cohort. No infants in the feeding group with cerebro-somatic near-infrared spectroscopy developed necrotising enterocolitis versus 4/16 (25%) in the feeding cohort without cerebro-somatic near-infrared spectroscopy (p = 0.04).
A feeding protocol is a safe and effective means of initiating and advancing enteral nutrition in infants following stage I palliation and resulted in improved nutrition delivery, weight gain, and nourishment status at discharge without increased incidence of gastrointestinal co-morbidities.
Eggs are considered a high-quality protein source for their complete amino acid profile and digestibility. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of whole egg (WE) v. egg white (EW) ingestion during 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on the skeletal muscle regulatory markers and body composition in resistance-trained men. Thirty resistance-trained men (mean age 24·6 (sd 2·7) years) were randomly assigned into the WE + RT (WER, n 15) or EW + RT (EWR, n 15) group. The WER group ingested three WE, while the EWR group ingested an isonitrogenous quantity of six EW per d immediately after the RT session. Serum concentrations of regulatory markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Significant main effects of time were observed for body weight (WER 1·7, EWR 1·8 kg), skeletal muscle mass (WER 2·9, EWR 2·7 kg), fibroblast growth factor-2 (WER 116·1, EWR 83·2 pg/ml) and follistatin (WER 0·05, EWR 0·04 ng/ml), which significantly increased (P < 0·05), and for fat mass (WER –1·9, EWR –1·1 kg), transforming growth factor-β1 (WER –0·5, EWR −0·1 ng/ml), activin A (WER –6·2, EWR –4·5 pg/ml) and myostatin (WER –0·1, EWR –0·06 ng/ml), which significantly decreased (P < 0·05) in both WER and EWR groups. The consumption of eggs absent of yolk during chronic RT resulted in similar body composition and functional outcomes as WE of equal protein value. EW or WE may be used interchangeably for the dietary support of RT-induced muscular hypertrophy when protein intake is maintained.
South Africa faces interconnected challenges of developing and diversifying its economy and adapting to and mitigating the impacts of climate change. A green policy tilt is ascendant in the country, manifest in a cascading array of policies and special initiatives. Utilising concepts from the multi-level perspective on socio-technical transitions, we assess Africa's first designated Green Special Economic Zone (SEZ), Atlantis SEZ (ASEZ) in the Western Cape, a niche innovation aimed at transforming the Province's industrial base. This initiative is very ambitious in four respects: (1) it links green SEZ development in a deprived metropolitan area to the broader regional economy; (2) it utilises an innovative governance structure; (3) it promises localization economies and export potential; and (4) it connects SEZ niche experimentation with emergent renewable energy regimes. While elements are in place which might seed a sociotechnical transition, societal and political forces (i.e. landscape features) continue to limit its realisation, highlighting the immanent, structural realities shaping South Africa's economic futures.
Negative symptoms have been previously reported during the psychosis prodrome, however our understanding of their relationship with treatment-phase negative symptoms remains unclear.
We report the prevalence of psychosis prodrome onset negative symptoms (PONS) and ascertain whether these predict negative symptoms at first presentation for treatment.
Presence of expressivity or experiential negative symptom domains was established at first presentation for treatment using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) in 373 individuals with a first episode psychosis. PONS were established using the Beiser Scale. The relationship between PONS and negative symptoms at first presentation was ascertained and regression analyses determined the relationship independent of confounding.
PONS prevalence was 50.3% in the schizophrenia spectrum group (n = 155) and 31.2% in the non-schizophrenia spectrum group (n = 218). In the schizophrenia spectrum group, PONS had a significant unadjusted (χ2 = 10.41, P < 0.001) and adjusted (OR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.11–5.22, P = 0.027) association with first presentation experiential symptoms, however this relationship was not evident in the non-schizophrenia spectrum group. PONS did not predict expressivity symptoms in either diagnostic group.
PONS are common in schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, and predict experiential symptoms at first presentation. Further prospective research is needed to examine whether negative symptoms commence during the psychosis prodrome.
At the conclusion of 2018, the future of the family law system in Australia was in a state of uncertainty, awaiting the outcome of a number of reforms ranging from Bills before Parliament to a wide-ranging review by the Australian Law Reform Commission. It seems unlikely that a radical overhaul or significant systemic change will result. Rather, the family law system will experience a continuation of incremental adjustments that have been occurring for many years. Thus, the theme that emerges in Australia for 2018 is that overwhelming complexity driven by incremental reforms continues, rather than any overall recasting of the law or underlying systems. In short, this is a time when there are many reformers but insufficient generalised reform.
In this chapter, the complexities of Australia's legal ‘pathway’ for the determination of parenting cases is first examined, together with some recent clarifications from the courts. It will be argued that the ‘pathway’ has reached a level of complexity that places it beyond the understanding of all but the most experienced family lawyers. It therefore also seems to impede movement toward litigation alternatives.
By way of an update, a summary of the two most significant specific reforms that have taken place in 2018 will be provided to demonstrate the wide array of reforms that continue to be pursued.
It is argued that whilst there has been much reform, the complexities of family law, and particularly the Australian legislation, are an under-acknowledged impediment to a functional family law system.
THE PROBLEM OF COMPLEXITY IN PARENTING LAWS
Like many legal systems, Australia's parenting provisions rest upon the fundamental concept of the ‘best interests’ of the child. This is expressed in the legislation as the ‘paramount consideration’. When Australia's Family Law Act commenced in 1975, the whole of the Part dealing with parenting was less than 2,700 words long. The key concept was then expressed in short compass:
64. (1) In proceedings with respect to the custody or guardianship of, or access to, a child of a marriage-
(a) the court shall regard the welfare of the child as the paramount consideration;
If a theme must be identified in family law in Australia over 2017 it would be that the developments in the law have arguably shown an emerging role for the consideration of the rights of the individual adult, not only with respect to access to the status of marriage but also within marriage or de facto marriage relationships. In this chapter, a range of developments in Australian family law over the last year will be identified, which, it is argued, display aspects that bear out this theme.
The most significant development in 2017 has been the legislative changes to the institution of marriage to allow access to all citizens, removing the limitation upon formal recognition of marriages to spouses in the traditional male-female dyad. As will be discussed in the first section of this chapter, the process of legislative change was challenging for a variety of reasons, although ultimately ended quite simply. The changes clearly promote the rights of couples to have intimate relationships solemnised as marriages without gender limitations and thus achieve the same legal status as traditional marriages arguably carries prestige and demonstrates acceptance of the legitimacy of same-sex partnerships.
In the past 12 months, the parenting provisions in Australian legislation have not significantly altered; however, a number of difficult issues have been the subject of significant appeal court decisions. The difficulties of controlling the living arrangement of a child in their middle teenage years (on the motion of a parent), in the face of entrenched opposition from the child, was addressed by the High Court, affirming orders contrary to the child's wishes. Secondly, the Full Court of the Family Court has again considered the extent of parental authority to authorise medical procedures in cases where children are to have medical intervention concerning gender issues, confirming greater authority for parents and children to make decisions that may be irreversible for the child by the time the child is an adult.
The option of pre-nuptial agreements (known as Binding Financial Agreements in the Australian legislative scheme) has been available in Australia for many years. In 2017, the courts were required to consider the enforceability of such an agreement in light of alleged undue influence by a party.
We investigated risk factors for severe acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) among hospitalised children <2 years, with a focus on the interactions between virus and age. Statistical interactions between age and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza, adenovirus (ADV) and rhinovirus on the risk of ALRI outcomes were investigated. Of 1780 hospitalisations, 228 (12.8%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The median (range) length of stay (LOS) in hospital was 3 (1–27) days. An increase of 1 month of age was associated with a decreased risk of ICU admission (rate ratio (RR) 0.94; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.91–0.98) and with a decrease in LOS (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.95–0.97). Associations between RSV, influenza, ADV positivity and ICU admission and LOS were significantly modified by age. Children <5 months old were at the highest risk from RSV-associated severe outcomes, while children >8 months were at greater risk from influenza-associated ICU admissions and long hospital stay. Children with ADV had increased LOS across all ages. In the first 2 years of life, the effects of different viruses on ALRI severity varies with age. Our findings help to identify specific ages that would most benefit from virus-specific interventions such as vaccines and antivirals.
Neurocognitive deficits are often seen as core features of schizophrenia, and as primary determinants of poor functioning. Yet, our clinical observations suggest that individuals who score within the impaired range on standardized tests can reliably perform better in complex real-world situations, especially when performance is embedded within a positive socio-affective context.
We analyzed literature on the influence of non-neurocognitive factors on test performance in order to clarify their contributions.
We identified seven non-neurocognitive factors that significantly contribute to neurocognitive test performance: avolition, dysfunctional attitudes, effort, stress, negative emotions, asociality, and disorganized symptoms. We then proposed an alternative model based on dysfunctional (e.g. defeatist) attitudes and their consequences for motivation and sustained task engagement. We demonstrated that these factors account for substantial variance in negative symptoms, neurocognitive test performance, and functional outcomes. We then demonstrated that recovery-oriented cognitive therapy – which is derived from this alternative model and primarily targets dysfunctional beliefs – has been successful in the treatment of low functioning individuals with schizophrenia.
The contributions of neurocognitive impairments to poor real-world functioning in people with schizophrenia may be overstated in the literature, and may even be limited relative to non-neurocognitive factors. We offer suggestions for further research to more precisely quantify the contributions of attitudinal/motivation v. neurocognitive factors in schizophrenia.
Our knowledge of the functions of the prefrontal cortex, often called executive, supervisory, or control, has been transformed over the past 50 years. After operationally defining terms for clarification, we review the impact of advances in functional, structural, and theoretical levels of understanding upon neuropsychological assessment practice as a means of identifying 11 principles/challenges relating to assessment of executive function. Three of these were already known 50 years ago, and 8 have been confirmed or emerged since. Key themes over this period have been the emergence of the use of naturalistic tests to address issues of “ecological validity”; discovery of the complexity of the frontal lobe control system; invention of new tests for clinical use; development of key theoretical frameworks that address the issue of the role of prefrontal cortex systems in the organization of human cognition; the move toward considering brain systems rather than brain regions; the advent of functional neuroimaging, and its emerging integration into clinical practice. Despite these huge advances, however, practicing neuropsychologists are still desperately in need of new ways of measuring executive function. We discuss pathways by which this might happen, including decoupling the two levels of explanation (information processing; brain structure) and integrating very recent technological advances into the neuropsychologist’s toolbox. (JINS, 2017, 23, 755–767)
Autocrats rely on co-optation to limit opposition mobilization and remain in power. Yet not all opposition parties that pose a threat to their regime are successfully co-opted. This article provides a formal model to show that reliance on activists influences whether an opposition leader receives and accepts co-optation offers from an autocrat. Activists strengthen a party’s mobilization efforts, yet become disaffected when their leader acquiesces to the regime. This dynamic undermines the co-optation of parties with a strong activist base, particularly those with unitary leadership. Activists have less influence over elite negotiations in parties with divided leadership, which can promote collusion with the regime. The results ultimately suggest that party activism can erode authoritarian control, but may encourage wasteful conflicts with the government.
Negative symptoms significantly contribute to disability and lack of community participation for low functioning individuals with schizophrenia. Cognitive therapy has been shown to improve negative symptoms and functional outcome in this population. Elucidation of the mechanisms of the therapy would lead to a better understanding of negative symptoms and the development of more effective interventions to promote recovery. The objective of this study was to determine (1) whether guided success at a card-sorting task will produce improvement in defeatist beliefs, positive beliefs about the self, mood, and card-sorting performance, and (2) whether these changes in beliefs and mood predict improvements in unguided card-sorting.
Individuals with schizophrenia having prominent negative symptoms and impaired neurocognitive performance (N = 35) were randomized to guided success (n = 19) or a control (n = 16) condition.
Controlling for baseline performance, the experimental group performed significantly better, endorsed defeatist beliefs to a lesser degree, reported greater positive self-concept, and reported better mood than the control condition immediately after the experimental session. A composite index of change in defeatist beliefs, self-concept, and mood was significantly correlated with improvements in card-sorting.
This analogue study supports the rationale of cognitive therapy and provides a general therapeutic model in which experiential interventions that produce success have a significant immediate effect on a behavioral task, mediated by changes in beliefs and mood. The rapid improvement is a promising indicator of the responsiveness of this population, often regarded as recalcitrant, to cognitively-targeted behavioral interventions.
S.-W. Ho, Institute for Telecommunications Research, University of South Australia,
T. Chan, Institute for Telecommunications Research, University of South Australia,
A. Grant, Myriota, Adelaide, Australia,
C. Uduwerelle, Institute for Telecommunications Research, University of South Australia
Shannon's fundamental bound for perfect secrecy says that the source entropy cannot be larger than the entropy of the secret key initially shared by the sender and the legitimate receiver. Massey gave an information theoretic proof of this result, and his proof does not require independence of the key and the source message. By further assuming independence, some stronger results, which govern the probability distributions of the key and the ciphertext, can be shown. These results illustrate that the key entropy is not less than the logarithm of the message sample size in any cipher achieving perfect secrecy, even if the source distribution is fixed. The same bound also applies to the entropy of the ciphertext. These results still hold if the source message has been compressed before encryption.
The above observation leads to different research problems studied in this chapter. When the source distribution is non-uniform, the entropy of the key is required to be strictly greater than the source entropy, and hence some randomness in the key is wasted. To deal with this problem, this chapter investigates cipher systems that contain residual secret randomness after they are used. A collection of such systems can be used to generate a new secret key. The aforementioned entropy bound only gives the minimum size of the pre-shared secret key. A new measure for key consumption, i.e., the entropy difference between the pre-shared secret key and the newly generated key, is proposed and justified in this chapter. Key consumption is shown to be bounded below by the source entropy, and the lower bound can be achieved by the codes proposed in this chapter. Furthermore, the existence of a fundamental tradeoff between the expected key consumption and the number of channel uses for conveying a ciphertext is shown.
Cipher systems with perfect secrecy were studied by Shannon in his seminal paper  (see also ). With reference to Fig. 2.1, a cipher system is defined by three components: a source message U, a ciphertext X, and a key R. Here, R is the collection of secret randomness shared only by the sender and the legitimate receiver.
Flexible electronics manufacturing from functional inks is a versatile approach gaining interest from both industry and academia at an accelerated pace; towards its full development, research studies establishing connections between the inks processing conditions and final materials functionalities become necessary. In this work, we report on the relations between synthesis, continuous - flow direct writing parameters, and low energy intensity post-processing of functional TiO2 hybrid ink patterns. Such inks are printed on heat sensitive polymer substrates with typical application in dye solar cell photoelectrodes; nevertheless, their versatility spans a wide range of other applications from sensors to photocatalysts. For the ink formulation, we use an initial crystalline nanoparticle TiO2 phase that provides the main functionality of the printed films. We also add a Ti-precursor that, when post-treated, provides connecting paths for the initial phase thus forming continuous porous structures. We find that the ink’s formulation plays a pivotal role by providing the means for tuning its rheological properties (necessary for successful direct writing), the ink-substrate interactions, and the printed microstructures. We further discuss the implications of such compositional variations, introduced when adding polymeric agents, such as polyacrylic acid, on the crystallization of the Ti-organic precursor into TiO2 bridges between the nanoparticles. We finally report on the electrical properties of the printed TiO2 photoelectrodes as compared to conventionally fabricated counterparts. The design, continuous – flow direct writing, and the subsequent mild thermal-energy treatments of hybrid sol-gel based TiO2 inks may hold the key for large-scale and sustainable additive manufacturing of flexible functional components for a range of applications.
The article reports the growth stop phenomenon, which was documented only for baobabs, i.e. for trees belonging to the Adansonia genus. The identification of growth stop was enabled by radiocarbon dating, which allows a complex investigation of samples collected from the trunk/stems of baobabs. In several cases, the outermost rings of baobabs, which were close to the bark, were found to be old, with ages of several hundreds of years, instead of being very young. Dating results of samples collected from six baobabs are presented. For multistemmed baobabs, the growth stop may occur only for one or several stems. We identified four factors that may induce the growth stop: (i) stress determined by severe climate conditions, (ii) old age, (iii) the need to keep a stable internal architecture, and (iv) the collapse of stems that survive this trauma. Baobabs and their stems affected by growth stop may survive for several centuries, by continuing to produce leaves, flowers, and fruits. This phenomenon was associated with the capacity of baobabs to store large amounts of water in their trunks/stems in the rainy season. This reservoir of water is used during the dry season and allows the trees to survive prolonged drought periods.
We comment on the conjecture by Parker et al. (2016) that Antarctic
toothfish recently returned to McMurdo Sound, arguing that this species never
departed. Instead, as deduced from a 40-year fishing effort, toothfish water column
prevalence became markedly reduced where bottom depths are <500 m, with research
continuing to show their presence on the bottom or above the bottom where depths are
deeper. We also counter arguments that toothfish departed, and remained absent,
during and following a five-year presence of mega-icebergs residing near the opposite
coast of Ross Island, the icebergs inhibiting or fomenting conditions that
discouraged toothfish presence in the Sound. Available analyses reveal that toothfish
movement into the Sound was probably not significantly affected, and additionally
that neither changes in hydrography nor in primary productivity in the Sound would
have been sufficient to impact toothfish presence through food web alteration. We
hypothesize that the local effect of predation by seals and whales and the regional
effect of a fishery targeting the largest toothfish (those neutrally buoyant and thus
capable of occupying upper levels of the water column) has resulted in the remaining
toothfish now being found predominantly closer to the bottom at greater depths.