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On account of its high brightness, the field emission electron source has the advantage that it provides the conventional electron microscope with highly coherent illuminating system and that it directly improves the, resolving power of the scanning electron microscope. The present authors have reported some results obtained with a 100 kV field emission electron microscope.
It has been proven, furthermore, that the tungsten emitter as a temperature field emission source can be utilized with a sufficient stability under a modest vacuum of 10-8 ~ 10-9 Torr. The present paper is concerned with an extension of our study on the characteristics of the temperature field emitters.
Research has shown that ADHD symptoms and functional impairment often persist beyond childhood into adulthood. Thus an effective therapy that can be tolerated over long-term use in adults is needed. This is the first long term safety and tolerability study of an adult ADHD medication in Asia.
Assess long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of atomoxetine (ATX) in adult Japanese ADHD patients.
Demonstrate the safety and tolerability of long-term ATX.
ATX (40-120 mg/day) was evaluated based on integrated analyses of a 10 week double-blind (DB) study and a 48 week open-label long term (LT) extension study. Long-term safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse events, discontinuation rate, and vital-signs. Efficacy measures included change from baseline in Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale- Investigator Rated (CAARS-Inv:SV) total symptoms score, behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-A), and Adult ADHD/QoL Measure (AAQoL).
233 patients took ATX (LT mean final prescribed dose: 108.3 mg/day). AEs leading to discontinuations were seen in 37 (15.9%) patients, the most common being nausea in 10 (4.3%) patients. Statistically significant baseline-to-endpoint reductions in mean CAARS-Inv:SV total symptoms score during in the DB study continued throughout the LT study. Similar reductions were seen in BRIEF-A Self Report scores. These findings along with AAQoL results indicated that patients perceived improvements in both QoL and Executive Function.
Long-term ATX treatment was shown to be generally safe and tolerable in Japanese adult ADHD patients. Results also suggested ATX improved ADHD core symptoms, QoL and Executive Functions.
Although most hospitals report very high levels of hand hygiene compliance (HHC), the accuracy of these overtly observed rates is questionable due to the Hawthorne effect and other sources of bias. In the study, we aimed (1) to compare HHC rates estimated using the standard audit method of overt observation by a known observer and a new audit method that employed a rapid (<15 minutes) “secret shopper” method and (2) to pilot test a novel feedback tool.
Quality improvement project using a quasi-experimental stepped-wedge design.
This study was conducted in 5 acute-care hospitals (17 wards, 5 intensive care units) in the Midwestern United States.
Sites recruited a hand hygiene observer from outside the acute-care units to rapidly and covertly observe entry and exit HHC during the study period, October 2016–September 2017. After 3 months of observations, sites received a monthly feedback tool that communicated HHC information from the new audit method.
The absolute difference in HHC estimates between the standard and new audit methods was ~30%. No significant differences in HHC were detected between the baseline and feedback phases (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.84–1.01), but the standard audit method had significantly higher estimates than the new audit method (OR, 9.83; 95% CI, 8.82–10.95).
HHC estimates obtained using the new audit method were substantially lower than estimates obtained using the standard audit method, suggesting that the rapid, secret-shopper method is less subject to bias. Providing feedback using HHC from the new audit method did not seem to impact HHC behaviors.
NUMO and JAEA have been conducting a joint research since FY2011, which is aimed
to enhance the methodology of repository design and performance assessment in
preliminary investigation stage for the deep geological disposal of high-level
radioactive waste. As a part of this joint research, we have been developing
glass dissolution models which include various processes derived from
glass-overpack-bentonite buffer interaction, considering the precipitation of
Fe-silicates associated with steel overpack corrosion, and Si transport through
altered layer of glass. The objective of this modeling work is to show
comprehensively the lifetime of the vitrified waste due to glass matrix
dissolution timescales through sensitivity analysis, and to identify the
feature/process that most strongly influences the lifetime, and to identify
future R&D issues that would help to improve the nuclide transport
analysis with confidential value and the safety case in future. The sensitivity
analysis suggested that the duration of the glass dissolution might be predicted
in the ranges from 3.8×103 to 1.9×105
years. Also, the results indicated that the precipitation of
Fe–silicate has the strongest influence on the long-team behavior of
Meiotic maturation of oocytes requires a variety of ATP-dependent reactions, such as germinal vesicle breakdown, spindle formation, and rearrangement of plasma membrane structure, which is required for fertilization. Mitochondria are accordingly expected be localized to subcellular sites of energy utilization. Although microtubule-dependent cellular traffic for mitochondria has been studied extensively in cultured neuronal (and some other somatic) cells, the molecular mechanism of their dynamics in mammalian oocytes at different stages of maturation remains obscure. The present work describes dynamic aspects of mitochondria in porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage. After incubation of oocytes with MitoTracker Orange followed by centrifugation, mitochondria-enriched ooplasm was obtained using a glass needle and transferred into a recipient oocyte. The intracellular distribution of the fluorescent mitochondria was then observed over time using a laser scanning confocal microscopy equipped with an incubator. Kinetic analysis revealed that fluorescent mitochondria moved from central to subcortical areas of oocytes and were dispersed along plasma membranes. Such movement of mitochondria was inhibited by either cytochalasin B or cytochalasin D but not by colcemid, suggesting the involvement of microfilaments. This method of visualizing mitochondrial dynamics in live cells permits study of the pathophysiology of cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular traffic of mitochondria and associated energy metabolism during meiotic maturation of oocytes.
In the present study, the sub-gap states of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films treated with various process conditions have been evaluated by means of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and isothermal capacitance transient spectroscopy (ICTS). It was found that the space-charge densities of the a-IGZO decreased as the oxygen partial pressure was increased during the sputtering of a-IGZO thin films. The ICTS spectra for the 4, 8, and 12 % samples were similar and the peak positions were found to be around 1 × 10-2 s at 180 K. On the other hand, the peak position for the 20 % sample shifted to a longer time regime and was located at around 2 × 10-1 s at 180 K. The total densities of the traps for the 4, 8, and 12 % samples were calculated to be 5−6 × 1016 cm-3, while that for 20 % was one order of magnitude lower than the others. From Thermal desorption spectrometer, it was found that desorption of Zn atoms started at a temperature higher than 300 °C for the 4 % sample, while desorption of Zn was not observed for the 20 % sample. The introduction of the sub-gap states could be attributed to oxygen-rich and/or Zn-deficient defects in the a-IGZO thin films formed during thermal annealing.
The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of energy metabolites net flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and total splanchnic tissues (TSP) in mature sheep fed varying levels of lucerne hay cubes. Four Suffolk mature sheep (61.4 ± 3.6 kg BW) surgically fitted with multi-catheters were fed four levels of dry matter intake (DMI) of lucerne hay cubes ranging from 0.4- to 1.6-fold the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements for maintenance. Six sets of blood samples were simultaneously collected from arterial and venous catheters at 30-min intervals. With increasing DMI, apparent total tract digestibility increased linearly and quadratically for dry matter (P < 0.05), quadratically (P < 0.05) with a linear tendency (P < 0.1) for organic matter and tended to increase quadratically (P < 0.1) for NDF. PDV release of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and β-hydroxybutyric acid was relatively low at 0.4 M and then linearly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing DMI. Net PDV flux of non-esterified fatty acids showed curvilinear decrease from 0.4 to 1.2 M and then increased at 1.6 M. The respective proportions of each VFA appearing in the portal blood differed (P < 0.05) with DMI and this difference was more obvious from 0.4 to 0.8 M than from 0.8 to 1.6 M. Heat production, as a percentage of ME intake (MEI), decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increasing DMI accounting for 37%, 21%, 16% and 13% for PDV and 62%, 49%, 33% and 27% for TSP at 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 M, respectively. As a proportion of MEI, total energy recovery including heat production, decreased linearly with increasing DMI (P < 0.05) accounting for 113%, 83%, 62% and 57% for PDV and 140%, 129%, 86% and 83% for TSP at 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 M, respectively. Regression analysis revealed a linear response between MEI (MJ/day per kg BW) and total energy release (MJ/day per kg BW) across the PDV and TSP, respectively. However, respective contributions of energy metabolites to net energy release across the PDV and TSP were highly variable among treatments and did not follow the same pattern of changes in DMI.
We successfully obtained the first optical spectra of the faint light echoes around Cassiopeia A and Tycho Brahe's supernova remnants (SNRs) with FOCAS and the Subaru Telescope. We conclude that Cas A and Tycho's SN 1572 belong to the Type IIb and normal Type Ia supernovae, respectively. Light echo spectra are important in order to obtain further insight into the supernova explosion mechanism of Tycho's SN 1572: how the Type Ia explosion actually proceeds, and whether accretion occurs from a companion or by the merging of two white dwarfs. The proximity of the SN 1572 remnant has allowed detailed studies, such as the possible identification of the binary companion, and provides a unique opportunity to test theories of the explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor. Future light-echo spectra, obtained in different spatial directions of SN 1572, will enable to construct a three-dimensional spectroscopic view of the explosion.
We present the first reported case of primary small cell carcinoma of the lacrimal sac.
A 67-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our department with a two-month history of left medial canthal swelling, epiphora and occasional nasal bleeding. Nasal endoscopy revealed a readily bleeding tumour in the left inferior meatus. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that the tumour was mainly located in the left lacrimal sac. Histopathological studies of a biopsy specimen revealed small cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with four cycles of chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide, in combination with radiotherapy. There was no evidence of recurrence or metastasis for five years.
Small cell carcinoma originating in the head and neck region has been reported to be highly aggressive and to have a poor prognosis. We report a case of primary small cell carcinoma of the lacrimal sac successfully treated with chemo-radiotherapy.
A total of 6346 swine sera collected at an abattoir in the city of Obihiro, Hokkaido during the years 1978–87 were tested for the presence of antibodies to swine and human influenza viruses. A high incidence of antibody to A/New Jersey/8/76 (swine type H1N1) virus was observed throughout the 10 years except for the occasional month and a single long period of 15 months. Antibodies to human H3N2 virus in swine appeared to be related to the epidemics of human influenza which occurred in the study area during the years 1980–3, but unrelated to the epidemics during the years 1984–7. A large number of swine were found to be antibody positive to a human H1N1 virus during the period April to June 1964, and a smaller number, during the period November 1986 to June 1987. Both were in relation to human influenza epidemics. However, there were long periods where human H1N1 antibodies in swine could not be found.
The first occurrence of swine influenza in Japan was recognized in 1977, when it was presumed that the disease was introduced via imported swine (Shibata elal. 1978). Further outbreaks of swine influenza and a high prevalence of antibody to the virus in Japanese swine populations have been reported by several workers (Yamane, Sukeno & Ishida, 1978; Sugimura elal. 1981; Ogawa elal. 1983). An outbreak of influenza virus infection due to an H3N2 strain was previously seen in a herd of swine in Osaka, Japan (Sugimura etal. 1975). Later the co-existence of swine (H1N1) and human (H3N2) influenza viruses was confirmed by serological and virological studies on Japanese swine populations (Onta et al. 1978; Sugimura et al. 1980; Arikawa et al. 1982). In a previous report (Miwa et al. 1986), we suggested that the swine became infected with a human H1N1 virus as piglets during an epidemic of influenza which occurred in the human population at the same time. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the changes in the prevalence of antibodies against swine and human influenza viruses in Japanese swine during the past 10 years.
There are few data on circulatory pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and cytokine gene polymorphisms in H. pylori-positive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the effects of H. pylori infection, gastric atrophy, and the IL-8 T-251A polymorphism on plasma IL-8 levels in 98 Japanese adults. Seventy-one subjects were positive for H. pylori infection. The geometric mean of plasma IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in subjects with H. pylori infection than in those without (P=0·001). The development of atrophy was negatively associated with IL-8 levels in the H. pylori-positive subjects, although not significantly. Plasma IL-8 levels in the T/T genotype were associated with H. pylori infection and atrophy status (P=0·016). Our findings suggested that circulating IL-8 levels were associated with H. pylori infection. The effect of H. pylori infection on plasma IL-8 levels was not clearly modified by the IL-8 T-251A polymorphism.
A total of 1799 swine sera collected in Toyama prefecture in the central part of Japan during the years 1978–82 were tested for antibody against swine influenza virus (SIV), A/New Jersey/8/76 (H1N1). A high prevalence of antibody was observed in the years after the severe epizootic of SI, 34·5% in 1979 and 51·7% in 1982. In other years, the percentages of positive sera were low and ranged from 1·7 to 12·4%. Regional variations were seen in relation to a small scale epizootic. No antibody to SIV was detected in any of the sera collected during the warm season. In the following dry and cold winter, however, a severe epizootic occurred among the swine populations.
A neutral beam injection (NBI) into a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is simulated by the electron-fluid and ion-particle method. The neutral beam particle is injected tangentially to the field-null circle, and the simulation is done on a two-dimensional cross section of the FRC. An initial equilibrium state is obtained from the Grad–Shafranov equation including the beam current term. It is found that the start of radial ion flow is delayed by the NBI.
A nationwide study was undertaken to determine the susceptibility to penicillin and serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Japan. S. pneumoniae was isolated from 114 adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia over 22 months at 20 hospitals and medical centres in different regions in Japan. All but five isolates were from sputum. Forty-eight isolates (42·1%) were susceptible, 40 (35·1%) showed intermediate resistance (MIC, 0·12–1·0 μg/ml) and 26 (22·8%) were resistant (MIC, [ges ]2·0 μg/ml) to penicillin G. All isolates were susceptible to ceftriaxone (breakpoint 1 μg/ml), imipenem (4 μg/ml) and vancomycin (4 μg/ml). Most were resistant to erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin; only two were resistant to levofloxacin. Differences were found in the distribution of serotypes among isolates showing susceptibility to penicillin (predominant types 3, 6B, and 19F), intermediate resistance (6B, 14, 19F, and 23F) and full resistance (19F and 23F). PFGE typing showed that 14 of the 25 strains of serotype 19F had a single DNA profile, pattern A, a pattern closely similar to that of the Taiwan multidrug-resistant 19F clone. Twelve pattern A strains were not susceptible to penicillin but carried the macrolide resistance gene mef(A). The DNA profiles of the 15 strains of 23F were also heterogeneous but six were highly similar (pattern b) yet distinct from the Spanish multidrug-resistant 23F clone although possibly related to the Taiwan multidrug-resistant 23F clone. The pattern b strains were not susceptible to penicillin and also harboured either mef(A) or erm(B). Our results indicate that multidrug-resistant pneumococci are spreading rapidly in Japan. Efforts to prevent the spread of the pandemic multidrug-resistant serotypes should be intensified.
ZnO nanorods were synthesized by chemical solution method at low temperature. The surface of nanorods was changed to porous by using thermal annealing and chemical etching. Surface morphology and their optical properties were changed according to annealing and etching condition. Photoluminescence from as-grown ZnO nanorods almost showed defect related emission in wide range from 450∼900 nm. After annealing at 500°C, the band-edge emission of ZnO was observed and emission at visible range was changed to green with decreasing red-orange. The surface morphology of ZnO nanorods was transformed to porous by chemical etching and it led to increase the intensity of band-edge emission about three times. The internal quantum efficiency for porous ZnO nanorods, which was calculated from ratio PL intensity at 10K and 300K, is about 21%. Also, the random lasing at porous ZnO nanorods was occurred at high optical excitation by a photon with traveling inside or outside of porous ZnO nanorod gets amplified by injection second photon before leaving porous ZnO nanorods.
Epitaxial ZnO films are successfully grown on Al2O3 substrates with phase controlled CrN buffer layer using Zn and O-plasma pre-exposures on CrN layers by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (P-MBE). The Zn exposures on CrN layers prior to ZnO film growth result in the formation of rocksalt CrN without surface oxidation. On the other hand, the surface of the initially deposited CrN layers with rocksalt structure changes into hexagonal structured Cr2O3 after O-plasma exposure as confirmed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR TEM). Etching studies show that the ZnO films grown on CrN have +C polarity, while the polarity of ZnO on Cr2O3/CrN double buffer is -C polarity. The interdiffusion of Zn and Cr occurs at the ZnO/CrN interface, while the interdiffusion is negligible at the ZnO/ Cr2O3 interface. The interdiffusion of Cr and Zn can be suppressed by inserting a low-temperature ZnO buffer layer in between ZnO and CrN layers, which helps improve the crystal quality of ZnO layers grown with CrN buffer.