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We present ground-based data of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-305 obtained during a large international campaign spanning the electro–magnetic spectrum from the radio waves to X-rays in November 1991. For the complete description of the observations and data analysis we refer to the paper by Courvoisier et al. 1993, and references therein. The ground-based data include radio, infrared JHKL and UBVRI fluxes as well as optical and near IR polarimetry.
The broad-band optical and near IR data from U to I exhibit the same behaviour in all bands: the flux nearly doubled over the well-covered period of 23 days. The cross-correlation function does not reveal any significant changes in the light-curves. Though significant variations in 24 hours have been recorded, the cumulated Fourier power spectrum drops to the noise level for periods shorter than 2.5 days. The spectral index remained constant.
The polarised flux varied by a larger factor than the total flux and did not follow the same pattern. The degree of polarisation and polarisation angle are nearly independent of the wavelength and are strongly correlated in all filters.
In the radio domain the spectral index increased from −0.1 on November 5 to +0.02 on 25-th.
The absence of the lag between the optical and infrared bands and the polarisation variations are consistent with a model in which the variability is caused by micro-lensing of the source (Stickel, Fried and Kühr 1988). One would, however, expect in this model that the variation in the polarisation and the total flux are tightly correlated contrary to what is observed.
The constant shape of the continuum spectral energy suggests that only the number of electrons whose emission is beamed towards the observer changes, rather than the arrival of fresh electrons that are being accelerated.
The variability of the polarisation may be explained by changes in the geometry of the magnetic field (dominant direction). This is consistent with the observed variations of the polarisation angle.
We performed systematic infrared observations of the intermediate-age Magellanic Clouds clusters NGC 419, NGC 1783 and NGC 1978. Mid-infrared stars discovered in NGC 419 and NGC 1978 are very red and must be undergoing intense mass loss (comparable to superwinds). They are probably carbon stars but do not seem to show any FIR excesses. Three optically visible carbon stars as well as (at least) 2 near-infrared carbon stars observed with ISOPHOT show 60 μm excesses which may indicate mass loss in the past. It seems that the MIR stars are fainter than the AGB tip luminosity and that their Mbols are close to those of the transition luminosity from M type to C stars. Therefore, these MIR stars may not be in the final stage of the AGB phase. This may suggest that AGB stars lose mass heavily at some other time, possibly during the transition from M type to C stars.
The outstanding feature of the last triennium was most certainly the abrupt generalisation of the use of array detectors, particularly CCDs (charge coupled devices). The latter pervade all subdivisions of instrumental astronomy. The gains achieved by their high quantum efficiency, their stability, their capability of delivering immediately recordable signals which can be processed by appropriate computational means, have been the cause of spectacular progress regarding the photometric precision of weak signal measurements.
The work of Commission 25 covers a wide range of topics concerning the measurement of magnitude, colour and polarisation of astronomical objects. As such, the area of interest covers virtually every field of astrophysical research in the visual and infrared spectral domain. Our reports cover some aspects of photometry and polarimetry as a technique rather than being an account of research highlights over the last three years.
In 1988, a Joint Commission (9 and 25) meeting on the causes of the well-known limitations on the precision of infrared astronomy led to several suggestions to improve matters (see Milone 1989). These included better reporting of the photometric systems in use by practitioners, redesign of the infrared passbands to be more optimally placed inside the atmospheric windows, and development of a method to ascertain the water vapor content of the atmosphere when the astronomical infrared measurements were being made. An Infrared Astronomy Working Group was formed to look into the matter. Advice and suggestions were solicited from the community at large. All who volunteered information became, de facto, members of the Working Group. A small subgroup composed of Andrew Young, Chris Stagg, and Milone set to work on the central of the recommendations: improvement of the passbands. Young, Milone, k Stagg (1994) (hereafter YMS) summarized the work: existing JHKLMN and Q infrared passbands were found to be both far from standardized, and all too frequently defined, to various degrees, by the water vapor and other components of the terrestrial atmosphere. Following extensive numerical simulations with a MODTRAN 3 terrestrial-atmospheres model package, and Kurucz stellar atmospheres, we suggested a set of improved infrared passbands designed explicitly to fit within, and not be defined by, the terrestrial atmospheric windows; however, we sought to optimize them so as to get the maximum throughput consistent with plausible limitations on precision of manufacture of the filters. In 1995 and again in 1997, a number of improvements were made in the code with which the improved passbands were designed. While they do not much affect the optimization trials and thus the passband recommendations, they have been used to extend the modeling.
A systematic near-infrared survey was made for globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. Two infrared stars were discovered in NGC419 (SMC) and NGC1783 (LMC). NGC419 and NGC1783 are well-studied rich globular clusters whose turn-off masses and ages are estimated MTO ~ 2.0 Mʘ and т ~1.2 Gyr for NGC419, and MT0 ~ 2.0 Mʘ and т ʘ 0.9 Gyr for NGC1783, respectively.
The periods of the infrared light variations were determined to be 540 dfor NGC419IR1 and to be 480 d for NGC1783IR1, respectively. Comparison of the measurements with the period—if magnitude relation for carbon Miras in the LMC by Groenewegen and Whitelock(1996) revealed that the Kmagnitudes of the infrared stars were fainter by about 0.3 — 0.8 magnitude than those predicted by the P — K relation. This deviation can be explained if the infrared stars are surrounded by thick dust shells and are obscured even in the K band. The positions of NGC419IR1and NGC1783IR1 on the P — K diagram suggest that AGB stars with the main sequence masses of about 2 Mʘ start their heavy mass-loss when P ʘ 500 d.
Nanostructured carbon materials, especially activated carbon, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, have been widely studied for supercapacitor applications. To maximize the efficacy of these materials for electrochemical energy storage, a detailed understanding of the relationship between the nanostructure of these materials and their performance as supercapacitors is required. A fundamental structural parameter obtained from the Raman spectra of these materials, the in-plane correlation length or nanocrystalline domain size, is found to correlate with the electrochemical capacitance, regardless of other morphological features. This correlation for a common nanostructural characteristic is believed to be the first result of its kind to span several distinct nanostructured carbon morphologies, including graphene–carbon nanotubes hybrid materials, and may allow more effective nanoscale engineering of supercapacitor electrode materials.
Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) result in behavioral issues related to poor executive function (EF). This overlap may hinder clinical identification of alcohol-exposed children. This study examined the relation between parent and neuropsychological measures of EF and whether parent ratings aid in differential diagnosis. Neuropsychological measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), were administered to four groups of children (8–16 years): alcohol-exposed with ADHD (AE+, n=80), alcohol-exposed without ADHD (AE−, n=36), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=93), and controls (CON, n=167). Primary caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). For parent ratings, multivariate analyses of variance revealed main effects of Exposure and ADHD and an interaction between these factors, with significant differences between all groups on nearly all BRIEF scales. For neuropsychological measures, results indicated main effects of Exposure and ADHD, but no interaction. Discriminant function analysis indicated the BRIEF accurately classifies groups. These findings confirm compounded behavioral, but not neuropsychological, effects in the AE+ group over the other clinical groups. Parent-report was not correlated with neuropsychological performance in the clinical groups and may provide unique information about neurobehavior. Parent-report measures are clinically useful in predicting alcohol exposure regardless of ADHD. Results contribute to a neurobehavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–13)
Do religious cultures hold enough sway over individuals’ life choices that they can be considered causal mechanisms generating inequality in contemporary American society? Can religious identification and participation create normative standards of behavior that either aid or hinder the development of human capital and either encourage or discourage its use to achieve financial success? These have been pressing questions since Max Weber first wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Yet the contemporary transformation of class structure in postindustrial societies and the declining strength of traditional denominational differences (particularly Protestant–Catholic) raise these issues anew. The new occupational structure of service economies, the increasing importance of dual earners in households to achieve middle class housing and status, the crucial role of postsecondary education (both the type of institution and major) for occupational success, and the critical role of marriage and family postponement in achieving stable lucrative employment all point to new avenues through which religion might influence class location.
Establishing a theory of causality, however, requires evidence that religious participation directly influences behavioral choices, rather than simply attracting people who have made similar life choices for disparate (nonreligious) reasons together in congregations. In this chapter, we review the existence of class-based differences in religious preferences and participation, and we theorize that these differences are not just the epiphenomenon of class-based religious “tastes” but are mechanisms through which class is constructed and reconstructed across generations.
Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are fascinating materials, both scientifically and technologically, due to their exceptional properties and potential use in applications ranging from high-frequency electronics to energy storage devices. This manuscript introduces a hybrid structure consisting of graphitic foliates grown along the length of aligned multiwalled CNTs. The foliate density and layer thickness vary as a function of deposition conditions, and a model is proposed for their nucleation and growth. The hybrid structures were studied using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The foliates consist of edges that approach the dimensions of graphene and provide enhanced charge storage capacity. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the weight-specific capacitance for the graphenated CNTs was 5.4× that of similar CNTs without the graphitic foliates. Pulsed charge injection measurements demonstrated a 7.3× increase in capacitance per unit area. These data suggest that this unique structure integrates the high surface charge density of the graphene edges with the high longitudinal conductivity of the CNTs and may have significant impact in charge storage and related applications.
The formal commissioning of the IRWG occurred at the 1991 Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The meeting justification, papers, and conclusions, can be found in Milone (1989). In summary, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same “JHKLMNQ” designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the spectral windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
Tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) films were deposited onto p-type silicon substrates using reactive DC magnetron sputtering, and then annealed for one hour in a dry air ambient at temperatures of 730°C, 780°C, and 830°C. Annealing was shown to reduce stress from the as-deposited sample, and resulted in a compressive stress state for samples annealed at 730°C and a tensile stress state for the other samples. Hardness values were approximately 8 GPa, with the exception of the sample annealed at 780°C that demonstrated a hardness of 13 GPa. Leakage current generally decreased with annealing, especially at the lower temperatures. Electrical breakdown was observed for as-deposited and the 830°C annealed films. Resistivities of the films ranged from 6.5 × 109 to 6.1 × 1012 ω-cm, with the film annealed at 830°C being the most conductive. Annealing also led to an increase in dielectric constant. Dielectric constants varied from 9.3 for the as-deposited to greater than 30 for the 780°C and 830°C annealed sample. Annealing resulted in crystalline films that were close to stoichiometric.
The performance enhancements offered by the next generation of SiC high power devices offer potential for enormous growth in SiC power device markets in the next few years. For this growth to occur, it is imperative that substrate and epitaxial material quality increases to meet the needs of the targeted applications. We will discuss the status and requirements for SiC substrates and epitaxial material for power devices such as Schottky and PiN diodes. For the SiC Schottky device where current production is approaching 50 amp devices, there are several material aspects that are key. These include; wafer diameter (3-inch and 100-mm), micropipe density (<0.3 cm−2 for 3-inch substrates and 16 cm−2 for 100-mm substrates), epitaxial defect densities (total electrically active defects <1.5 cm−2), epitaxial doping and epitaxial thickness uniformity. For the PiN diodes the major challenge is the degradation of the Vf characteristics due to the introduction of stacking faults during the device operation. We have demonstrated that the stacking faults are often generated from basal plane dislocations in the active region of the device. Additionally we have demonstrated that by reducing the basal plane dislocation density, stable PiN diodes can be produced. At present typical basal plane dislocation densities in our epitaxial layers are 100 to 500 cm−2; however, we have achieved basal plane dislocation densities as low as 4 cm−2 in epitaxial layers grown on 8° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates.
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate the reaction of methanol with porous silicon and hydrogen passivated porous silicon. At 300 K methanol adsorbs onto hydrogen free porous silicon by cleavage of the O-H bond. Both of the resulting surface species, Si-H and Si-OCH3, were determined to be stable up to ∼500 K. Above 500 K the Si-OCH3 moiety decomposes by breakage of the C-O and C-H bonds. The resulting carbon and oxygen were incorporated into the porous layer and additional Si-H surface species were detected. Further heating to 900 K removed the Si-H surface species. Adsorption of methanol onto hydrogen-passivated porous silicon did not occur until 600 K. At temperatures beyond 600 K, oxygen and carbon incorporation into the porous layer and Si-OCH3, Si-CH3, and Si-H surface species were seen. The previously unseen Si-CH3 surface species is believed to be stabilized by oxygen incorporation.
High purity β—SiC films have been epitaxially grown on Si (100) and off-axis Si (100) substrates. Conventional chemical vapor deposition at 1633K and 1 atm using SiH4 and C2H4 reactants in an H2 carrier gas was employed for this growth. Large differences in lattice parameter and thermal coefficients of expansion between the film and the substrate were partially compensated for by growing aninitial “conversion layer.” Plan view and cross—sectional transmission electron microscopy were utilized to study the conversion layer and the defects present in the films. A high density of stacking faults and dislocations were present in allthe films grown on Si, however, antiphase boundaries were eliminated when certain off—axis Si (100) substrates were employed. The effects of misorientation angle and substrate preannealing were investigated. The electrical properties of the β-SiC films were also studied using differential capacitance—voltage and Hall effect measurements as well as the I—V characteristics of Au—β—SiC Schottky diodes. It was found that the elimination of antiphase boundaries reduced leakage current but did not significantly effect carrier concentration or Hall electron mobility. Finally, the I—V characteristics of a Metal—Semiconductor—Field—Effect—Transistor (MESFET) have been evaluated for a β—SiC filmon an on—axis Si (100) substrate.
The anodic dissolution of copper has been examined in deaerated, 0.1 M HCl aqueous solution in the presence of H202. Concentrations of H202 up to 0.2 M were studied at a rotating copper disk-platinum ring electrode. The open circuit potential (OCP) of copper was found to depend on both peroxide concentration and rotation rate. The OCP shifts towards more positive values with increasing H202 concentration (C) and decreasing rotation rate (ω). The dependence of OCP on (C/ω1/2) was the same s for oxygenated solutions reported earlier , at small values of (C/ω1/2). At higher values of (C/ω1/2), departure from the expected behavior was observed. The current- voltage curves for anodic dissolution of copper were also influenced by the presence of peroxide. The curves recorded with the potential scanned in the positive direction showed the expected 60 mV slope, but the reverse scans showed significant departures. At a given potential scan rate, hysteresis was observed which was larger for higher H202concentrations, lower rotation rates, and more positive anodic potential limits. Monitoring the cuprous ions at the outer Pt ring revealed that there was a complex set of events taking place at the copper surface, including film formation and the appear- ance of cupric ions.
The technology of low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of polycrystalline diamond films has advanced substantially in recent years [1–3]. However, fundamental understanding of the chemistry and physics occurring in this CVD process is still lagging. Although the key role that H atoms play in diamond CVD has long been recognized [4–6], the identity of the gaseous diamond precursors and the mechanism by which diamond is formed are still unclear. Only recently has interest in these critical issues grown. For example, theoretical predictions and quantum mechanical calculations of gas-solid reaction paths involving CH3 and CH3+  or C2H2  have been reported, and the thermodynamic analyses of diamond CVD processes have been examined [9,10]. In addition, experimental results and chemical models [11–16] have been presented in attempts to support specific species as the essential precursors of diamond growth. Nevertheless, no consensus has been reached concerning the growth species and mechanism in CVD diamond processes.
CVD diamond films prepared under varying conditions have been investigated with IR and Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the crystal structure, and ir absorption was used to determine the H bonding environments. The growth temperatures were varied in one series, while the CH4/H2 ratio was varied in another. The IR absorption of all the samples showed a weak broad band extending from approximately 2800 to 2970 cm−1 which was attributed to H bonded to sp3 C sites. There was no evidence of ir absorption at 3000 to 3200 cm−1 which would indicate H bonded to sp2 or sp1 C sites. For both series, the Raman measurements showed progression from diamond-like films to diamond films. The ir absorption showed a general trend of less H with more well ordered diamond structures. No sharp transition of the H incorporation vs the growth parameters was observed.
We describe the electrical characteristics of boron doped homoepitaxial diamond films fabricated using a plasma assisted CVD process, formation of ohmic contacts, high temperature (580°C) Schottky diodes, and a rudimentary diamond MESFET. We also report reversible changes of the conductive state of the diamond surface by various surface treatments for both natural and thin-film diamonds.