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Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. They cause widespread hardship and are associated with detrimental effects on mental health.
Our aim is to provide the best estimate of the effects of natural disasters on mental health through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder after natural disasters.
This systematic review and meta-analysis is limited to studies that met predetermined quality criteria. We required included studies to make comparisons with pre-disaster or non-disaster exposed controls, and sample representative populations. Key studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO from 1980 to 3 March 2017. Random effects meta-analyses were performed for studies that reported key outcomes with appropriate statistics.
Forty-one studies were identified by the literature search, of which 27 contributed to the meta-analyses. Continuous measures of psychological distress were increased after natural disasters (combined standardised mean difference 0.63, 95% CI 0.27–0.98, P = 0.005). Psychiatric disorders were also increased (combined odds ratio 1.84, 95% CI 1.43–2.38, P < 0.001). Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression were significantly increased after disasters. Findings for anxiety and alcohol misuse/dependence were not significant. High rates of heterogeneity suggest that disaster-specific factors and, to a lesser degree, methodological factors contribute to the variance between studies.
Increased rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders follow natural disasters. High levels of heterogeneity between studies suggest that disaster variables and post-disaster response have the potential to mitigate adverse effects.
Personality disorders commonly coexist with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but there is conflicting evidence on their association with treatment outcomes.
To determine the size and direction of the association between personality disorder and the outcome of treatment for AUD.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials and longitudinal studies.
Personality disorders were associated with more alcohol-related impairment at baseline and less retention in treatment. However, during follow-up people with a personality disorder showed a similar amount of improvement in alcohol outcomes to that of people without such disorder. Synthesis of evidence was hampered by variable outcome reporting and a low quality of evidence overall.
Current evidence suggests the pessimism about treatment outcomes for this group of patients may be unfounded. However, there is an urgent need for more consistent and better quality reporting of outcomes in future studies in this area.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
This paper is an interim report of our inferences about the hydrostatic structure of the Sun, following the first report of the GONG team in Science (Gough et al., 1996). That work confirms that the spherically averaged structure of the Sun is more or less in agreement with current standard solar models. However, there remain some significant deviations which we regard as important clues to the existence of dynamical phenomena which are not taken into account in standard solar modelling.
This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. It introduces the current best practice in histopathology and cytopathology as it pertains to head and neck and thyroid cancers.
• Accurate diagnosis of the type of malignancy is a key component of effective management. (R)
• Surgeons and oncologists should understand the scope and limitations of cellular pathology in order to inform multidisciplinary discussions. (R)
• A clinically suspected diagnosis of malignancy should be confirmed by biopsy or cytology before operation. (R)
• Cytopathological diagnoses should be discussed with surgeons and radiologists to maximise the information gained from each modality of investigation. (R)
• Pathological investigations are the basis for accurate cancer staging and stratification of clinical outcomes. (R)
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the FFQ administered to participants in the follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), and to provide calibration coefficients.
A random sample stratified by country of birth, age, sex and BMI was selected from MCCS participants. Participants completed two FFQ and three 24 h recalls over 1 year. Reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Validity coefficients (VC) were estimated from structural equation models and calibration coefficients obtained from regression calibration models.
Adults born in Australia, Greece or Italy.
Nine hundred and sixty-five participants consented to the study; of these, 459 participants were included in the reliability analyses and 615 in the validity and calibration analyses.
The FFQ showed good repeatability for twenty-three nutrients with ICC ranging from 0·66 to 0·80 for absolute nutrient intakes for Australian-born and from 0·51 to 0·74 for Greek/Italian-born. For Australian-born, VC ranged from 0·46 (monounsaturated fat) to 0·83 (Ca) for nutrient densities, comparing well with other studies. For Greek/Italian-born, VC were between 0·21 (Na) and 0·64 (riboflavin). Calibration coefficients for nutrient densities ranged from 0·39 (retinol) to 0·74 (Mg) for Australian-born and from 0·18 (Zn) to 0·54 (riboflavin) for Greek/Italian-born.
The FFQ used in the MCCS follow-up study is suitable for estimating energy-adjusted nutrients for Australian-born participants. However, its performance for estimating intakes is poorer for southern European migrants and alternative dietary assessment methods ought to be considered if dietary data are to be measured in similar demographic groups.
I explore in this paper the significance of the headdress interred on Burial 11 under Hopewell Mound 25 by reexamining its archaeological context and the history of its interpretation. Following Shetrone’s (1926) initial interpretation, I argue that it was an avian headdress that specifically portrayed a two-headed raptor. I support this reassessment with an iconographie analysis of related representations from the Central Ohio River Valley, especially the imagery engraved on a femur from Hopewell Mound 25. I also delve into what these two-headed raptors might have meant to people in the Eastern Woodlands.
A series of laser pump, x-ray probe experiments show that above band gap photoexcitation can generate a large out-of-plane strain in multiferroic BiFeO3 thin films. The strain decays in a time scale that is the same as the photo-induced carriers measured in an optical transient absorption spectroscopy experiment. We attribute the strain to the piezoelectric effect due to screening of the depolarization field by laser induced carriers. A strong film thickness dependence of strain and carrier relaxation is also observed, revealing the role of the carrier transport in determining the structural and carrier dynamics in complex oxide thin films.
The method of ion implantation and spike annealing for preparing shallow junctions suitable for the extension regions bridging the channel and source/drain contacts of CMOS transistors are studied by annealing blanket implants. Junction depths at a given sheet resistance for low energy B implants are minimized for the combination of a fast ramp with a sharp-spike anneal. This is shown to be physically based on activation energy phenomenology. The fraction of electrically activated B is insensitive to implant dose, unlike the case of transient enhanced diffusion. Arsenic implants show higher activation fraction than comparably annealed P implants, without the large transient enhanced diffusion which is attributed to P and Si-interstitial coupled diffusion. For targeted sheet resistance and junction depth, spiking temperature trends lower with implant dose, concomitant with decreasing fraction of activated dopant.
Understanding the diffusion and activation of arsenic is critical for the formation of low resistance ultra-shallow junctions as required for nanoscale MOS devices. In this work, we use results of ab-initio calcultions in order to gain insight into the fundamental process involved in arsenic activation/deactivation. Utilizing continuum modeling, we find it is possible to account for both the very rapid initial deactivation of arsenic as well as the strongly superline independence of interstitial supersaturation on doping level which accompanies deactivation. The critical process is the rearrangement of A s-atoms via in testitial mediated diffusion leading to ejection of silicon atoms from arsenic complexes and formation of arsenic-vacancy clusters.
Initial studies (using Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy) on the lateral diffusion of B and As have shown an important influence of the thickness of oxy/nitride spacers. The latter phenomenon was tentatively ascribed to stress enhanced diffusion under the spacer region . These studies have been complemented with Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) measurements, which confirm the SSRM-data. In fact both techniques shows a similar increase in lateral diffusion with increasing spacer thickness (∼ 0.2 nm/nm spacer thickness), whereby no effect is observed on the vertical diffusion. When using spacers with or without TEOS-liner, fairly similar enhancements could be seen. Micro-Raman and CBED stress measurements for these cases do however show a large reduction in stress when a TEOS-liner is used, suggesting that the correlation (at least to the final) stress is not really justified. A possible explanation could however be that the lateral diffusion occurs before the stress relaxation within the thermal treatment. In order to elucidate the diffusion mechanism (initial stress, interstitials, hydrogen incorporation, TED,..) we have expandedthe experimental matrix with a vacancy diffuser such as Sb and simulated the potential H-incorporation duringthe nitride deposition by a hydrogen anneal. Moreover we also have studied the impact of TED by splits with RTP-anneals before the nitride deposition.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of premature death in the UK and many developed countries. However, the risk of developing CRC is well recognised to be associated not only with diet but also with obesity and lack of exercise. While epidemiological evidence shows an association with factors such as high red meat intake and low intake of vegetables, fibre and fish, the mechanisms underlying these effects are only now being elucidated. CRC develops over many years and is typically characterised by an accumulation of mutations, which may arise as a consequence of inherited polymorphisms in key genes, but more commonly as a result of spontaneously arising mutations affecting genes controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and DNA repair. Epigenetic changes are observed throughout the progress from normal morphology through formation of adenoma, and the subsequent development of carcinoma. The reasons why this accumulation of loss of homoeostatic controls arises are unclear but chronic inflammation has been proposed to play a central role. Obesity is associated with increased plasma levels of chemokines and adipokines characteristic of chronic systemic inflammation, and dietary factors such as fish oils and phytochemicals have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties as well as modulating established risk factors such as apoptosis and cell proliferation. There is also some evidence that diet can modify epigenetic changes. This paper briefly reviews the current state of knowledge in relation to CRC development and considers evidence for potential mechanisms by which diet may modify risk.
The submillimeter optical properties of hot-pressed boron nitride with a hexagonal crystal structure were studied at room temperature from approximately 20 cm-1 to 120 cm-1 (500μm -84 μm) with a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Several grades were studied and probed both parallel and perpendicular to the material's optic axis. The material was found to behave as a negatively uniaxial birefringent crystal. In one case, the birefringence (Δ = ne - no) was quite large with a value of-0.152. The material's absorption properties were also studied. For certain grades, a modest dichroism was observed. The low absorption (α < 1 cm-1) for grade A at frequencies below 38 cm-1 suggests the possibility for millimeter/submillimeter wave applications. Results are compared with data by other researchers on related materials.
Bulk crystals of CdGeAs2 have been characterized using photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption, Hall effect, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. An absorption band near 5.5 microns at room temperature is observed in all of the p-type samples we have studied. A correlation between the magnitude of this optical absorption and the excess hole concentration at room temperature is established. Also, an EPR signal is found to correlate with the strength of this absorption band. PL data are consistent with an increased concentration of shallow acceptors being present in high-absorption samples. From the EPR data, we suggest that a model for the paramagnetic defect associated with the absorption at 5.5 microns may be an acceptor on an anion site.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to monitor native defects, both acceptors and donors, in ZnGeP2 crystals grown by the horizontal gradient freeze technique. These active centers include singly ionized zinc vacancies (Vzn-), neutral phosphorus vacancies (VP0), and neutral phosphorus antisite defects (PGe0). The concentration of Vzn− acceptors correlates with the near-infrared optical absorption present in all ZnGeP2 crystals. A photoluminescence band near 1.4 eV is shown to be polarized and is attributed to donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) recombination. Preliminary time-decay measurements support this assignment. Observation of the EPR spectrum of Mn2+ is also reported.
Zinc germanium diphosphide (ZnGeP2) is a nonlinear optical material used in mid-infrared optical parametric oscillators. The near-infrared photoluminescence (PL) from single crystals of bulk ZnGeP2 has been studied as a function of excitation power, wavelength, temperature, and polarization. At 5 K, a broad PL band extending from 0.7 µm to beyond 1 µm is typically observed. Two distinct emissions with different polarization, power, and temperature behaviors have been resolved. These bands have peaks in intensity near 1.6 eV and 1.4 eV. The relative intensities of these two bands were found to correlate with the presence of phosphorus vacancies, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A resonance in the intensity of the 1.6-eV band occurs when pumping into a level ∼90 meV below the minimum conduction band. This level is tentatively assigned to the shallow state.
Hydrogen incorporation in both undoped and nitrogen-doped CdTe and ZnSe is investigated. Evidence for a strong nitrogen-hydrogen interaction is presented. Preliminary data indicate that the growth of CdTe and ZnSe under an atomic hydrogen flux results in a significant concentration of paramagnetic defects possibly accompanied by enhanced auto-doping from residual impurities.