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In this contribution I provide a brief summary of the contents of Gaia DR1. This is followed by a discussion of studies in the literature that attempt to characterize the quality of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution parallaxes in Gaia DR1, and I point out a misconception about the handling of the known systematic errors in the Gaia DR1 parallaxes. I highlight some of the more unexpected uses of the Gaia DR1 data and close with a look ahead at the next Gaia data releases, with Gaia DR2 coming up in April 2018.
OB associations are prime sites for the study of star formation processes and of the interaction between young massive stars with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the kinematics and structure of the nearest OB associations provide detailed insight into the properties and origin of the Gould Belt. In this context, the Orion complex has been extensively studied. However, the spatial distribution of the stellar population is still uncertain: in particular, the distances and ages of the various sub-groups composing the Orion OB association, and their connection to the surrounding interstellar medium, are not well determined. We used the first Gaia data release to characterize the stellar population in Orion, with the goal to obtain new distance and age estimates of the numerous stellar groups composing the Orion OB association. We found evidence of the existence of a young and rich population spread over the entire region, loosely clustered around some known groups. This newly discovered population of young stars provides a fresh view of the star formation history of the Orion region.
Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources.
To determine whether gowning and gloving for all patient care reduces contamination of healthcare worker (HCW) clothing, compared to usual practice.
Five study sites were recruited from intensive care units (ICUs) randomized to the intervention arm of the Benefits of Universal Gown and Glove (BUGG) study.
All HCWs performing direct patient care in the study ICUs were eligible to participate.
Surveys were performed first during the BUGG intervention study period (July–September 2012) with universal gowning/gloving and again after BUGG study conclusion (October–December 2012), with resumption of usual care. During each phase, HCW clothing was sampled at the beginning and near the end of each shift. Cultures were performed using broth enrichment followed by selective media. Acquisition was defined as having a negative clothing culture for samples taken at the beginning of a shift and positive clothing culture at for samples taken at the end of the shift.
A total of 348 HCWs participated (21–92 per site), including 179 (51%) during the universal gowning/gloving phase. Overall, 51 (15%) HCWs acquired commonly pathogenic bacteria on their clothing: 13 (7.1%) HCWs acquired bacteria during universal gowning/gloving, and 38 (23%) HCWs acquired bacteria during usual care (odds ratio [OR], 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2–0.6). Pathogens identified included S. aureus (25 species, including 7 methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]), Enterococcus spp. (25, including 1 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus [VRE]), Pseudomonas spp. (4), Acinetobacter spp. (4), and Klebsiella (2).
Nearly 25% of HCWs practicing usual care (gowning and gloving only for patients with known resistant bacteria) contaminate their clothing during their shift. This contamination was reduced by 70% by gowning and gloving for all patient interactions.
Piglets reared in swine production in the USA undergo painful procedures that include castration, tail docking, teeth clipping, and identification with ear notching or tagging. These procedures are usually performed without pain mitigation. The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in 1- to 28-day-old piglets undergoing these procedures. The National Pork Board funded project to develop recommendations for pain mitigation in piglets. Recommendation development followed a defined multi-step process that included an evidence summary and estimates of the efficacies of interventions. The results of a systematic review of the interventions were reported in a companion paper. This manuscript describes the recommendation development process and the final recommendations. Recommendations were developed for three interventions (CO2/O2 general anesthesia, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and lidocaine) for use during castration. The ability to make strong recommendations was limited by low-quality evidence and strong certainty about variation in stakeholder values and preferences. The panel strongly recommended against the use of a CO2/O2 general anesthesia mixture, weakly recommended for the use of NSAIDs and weakly recommended against the use of lidocaine for pain mitigation during castration of 1- to 28-day-old piglets.
The causes of hydrothermal alteration in dolerite dykes intruding Caledonian rocks of W Connacht are investigated using stable isotope, water content and K–Ar data for whole rocks and mineral separates. Using an isochron approach the Logmór dyke in the north is re-dated to 308±4 Ma; previously determined older whole-rock ages reflect excess 40Ar. The ∼ 305 Ma age previously proposed for the Teach Dóite suite in the south is reinforced by a 305 Ma age on a pyroxene separate, although the severe resetting of most samples is emphasised by other pyroxene and plagioclase ages of ∼210 Ma. Pyroxene δ18O values for these Upper Carboniferous dykes are mostly 5·5 to 6·1%, indicating negligible crustal contamination. Logmór whole-rock samples have water contents of 1·7–2·1 wt.%, δ5D= 59 to –47‰ and δ18O = 9·4 to 9·6‰; plagioclase shows little mineralogical alteration but its δ18O is 9·7‰. Hydrothermal alteration involving a local formation or metamorphic water took place at high fluid/rock ratios and high temperature during cooling after intrusion, most probably in a thermally-driven convection system. Teach Dóite dykes have water contents of 2·0–4·2 wt.%. δD= –58 to –38‰ and δ18O = 3·6 to 9·2‰, and were mostly altered in two stages; hydration upon intrusion to ∼ 2 wt.% water by contemporaneous meteoric water at low fluid/rock ratios was followed by extensive chemical and isotopic alteration at ∼210 Ma (Upper Triassic) by surface waters. This latter event could also have caused the extensive alteration observed in the host rocks.
In this work, hydrophobic mesostructured organosilica thin films, exhibiting isolated mesopores (~ 7 nm), have been successfully deposited by spin-coating using different polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide copolymers (PS-b-PEO) as structure-directing agents and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) as organosilica precursor. Different ordered mesostructures (Face Centered Cubic, 2D or 3D Hexagonal and Body Centered Cubic) can be achieved by controlling different synthesis parameters. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (GISAXS) techniques were used to investigate the mesostructure evolution through thermal and UV treatments. Swelling and shrinkage were evidenced by in-situ XRD and X-Ray Reflectivity measurements during the thermal removal of the meso-templates. Infrared spectroscopy and 29Si NMR were additionally used to investigate the microstructure evolution. The film porosity was estimated thanks to Ellipsometry Porosimetry (EP). Correlation between mechanical properties through nanoindentation measurements and the mesostructure ordering is discussed as well as assessments of the dielectric constant k by mercury contact probe.