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The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
Mongolia's Gobi Desert ecosystem, a stronghold for populations of the Asiatic wild ass (khulan) Equus hemionus and the goitered gazelle Gazella subgutturosa, faces conservation challenges as a result of rapid economic development, including mining-related infrastructure projects. There is a paucity of reliable data on population abundance for these ungulates in the region, which makes it difficult to assess how they are responding to increasing anthropogenic pressure. Our aim was to obtain abundance estimates for khulan and goitered gazelles to inform their management and form the basis of a long-term monitoring programme. Each year during 2012–2015 we surveyed a total of 64 line transects spaced 20 km apart, with a total of 3,464 km of survey effort across 78,717 km2. Distance sampling analysis provided annual estimates of density and abundance, which were cross-referenced with the results of an aerial survey conducted in 2013. Overall, we observed 784 groups (14,608 individuals) of khulan and 1,033 groups (3,955 individuals) of goitered gazelles during the four surveys. The abundance estimates for 2013 were 35,899 (95% CI 22,680–40,537) khulan and 28,462 (95% CI 21,326–37,987) goitered gazelles. These estimates were congruent with the results from the aerial survey, which overlapped spatially and temporally with our ground-based survey. Our findings confirm that Mongolia's Gobi Desert supports the largest population of khulan and goitered gazelles in the world, and we provide a critical update on the status of the two species.
Are wine alcohol labels accurate? If not, why? We explore the high and rising alcohol content of wine and examine incentives for false labeling, including the roles of climate, evolving consumer preferences, and expert ratings. We draw on international time-series data from a large number of countries that experienced different patterns of climate change and influences of policy and demand shifts. We find systematic patterns that suggest that rising wine alcohol content may be a nuisance by-product of producer responses to perceived market preferences for wines having more-intense flavours, possibly in conjunction with evolving climate. (JEL Classifications: D22, L15, L66, Q18, Q54).
Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, resulting in global human morbidity and mortality and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Poultry and wild birds have transmitted AIV to humans, most frequently subtypes H5 and H7, but also different strains and subtypes of H6, H9, and H10. Determining which birds are AIV reservoirs can help identify human populations that have a high risk of infection with these viruses due to occupational or recreational exposure to the reservoir species. To assess the prevalence of AIV in tropical birds, from 2010 to 2014, we sampled 40 099 birds at 32 sites in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon) and West Africa (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo). In Central Africa, detection rates by real-time RT–PCR were 16·6% in songbirds (eight passerine families, n = 1257), 16·4% in kingfishers (family Alcedinidae, n = 73), 8·2% in ducks (family Anatidae, n = 564), and 3·65% in chickens (family Phasianidae, n = 1042). Public health authorities should educate human cohorts that have high exposure to these bird populations about AIV and assess their adherence to biosecurity practices, including Cameroonian farmers who raise small backyard flocks.
During his self-narrated journey through Purgatory in Part II of Divine comedy, Dante encounters a fellow poet, Donati Ferese, who ingratiates Dante with the following greeting: “[T]ell me if I see here the one who drew forth the new rhymes, beginning, ‘Ladies who have intellect of Love’?” Dante replies, “I in myself am one who, when Love breathes within me, takes note, and to that measure which he dictates within, I go signifying.” Ferese continues, “O my brother, now I see the knot that held Notary and Guittone and me back on this side of the sweet new style I hear. I see well how your pens follow close behind him who dictates, which with ours certainly did not happen” (Alighieri, 2003, Canto 24, p. 403).
It would be difficult to find in the literary canon a pithier portrayal of the role of inspiration in the creative process. Dante’s description of inspiration conveys its hallmark features – passive evocation (“when Love breathes within me”), transcendent awakening (“I…take note”), and motivation to express the content of the new awareness in concrete form (“I go signifying”). This passage also puts forth a provocative thesis: without inspiration, the writer produces a work of inferior quality. Although not universal, the belief that inspiration plays an important role in the creative process is widely held among writers and other creators (Fehrman, 1980; Harding, 1948). However, scientists traditionally have not invoked the inspiration concept in their theories or investigations of the creative process. In fact, some scientists (e.g., Sawyer, 2006) have portrayed inspiration as an outmoded explanation of creativity, a supernatural account that originated in ancient times and that has been perpetuated by Romantic poets and other creators.
A primary concern with dating skeletal material from oceanic environments is the effect of marine-derived carbon on resulting radiocarbon ages. Due to uncertainties in local marine reservoir effects and the proportion of marine carbon incorporated in bone, dates from archaeological skeletal material exhibiting marine dietary signatures have previously been characterized as problematic and removed from further analysis. While in certain instances this may be appropriate, in others it is not. This article presents 26 new 14C dates obtained from human teeth (dentin collagen) on Rapa Nui. The effect of the local marine reservoir on 14C ages is evaluated assuming a range of incorporated marine-derived carbon. The results indicate that the Rapa Nui 14C ages are not significantly different under varying realistic extreme ranges in estimates of the proportion of marine carbon consumed. The article argues that this is primarily due to the small local marine reservoir effect measured in Rapa Nui and relatively lower reliance on marine resources in the prehistoric and protohistoric population.
In forensic sciences, radiocarbon found in modern human nails and hair is evaluated to determine the year of death. However, 14C analyses presented herein of fingernails and hair from the same infant demonstrated 14C values of hair that were lower than would be expected (e.g. depleted relative to the fingernails by at least 10‰). These results prompted a series of 14C measurements on infant hair strands, fingernails, and infant shampoo, which suggested the presence of C contamination due to cosmetic products. To further evaluate these discrepancies, several hair strands and fingernail samples from multiple donors were collected, pretreated by several approaches, and measured using isotopic analysis (δ13C, δ15N, and C/N as well as 14C accelerator mass spectrometry). SEM images of the surface of chemically pretreated hair strands were also taken to inspect the performance of the chemical pretreatments applied. Our 14C and stable isotope results show that modern human hair is likely contaminated with fossil-fuel-derived carbon, which is found in most hair care products. Currently, the various chemical pretreatments available in the literature and presented herein show that it is not possible to completely remove foreign carbon contaminates. Thus, the human 14C and δ13C values between keratinous tissues (fingernails and hair) arc not in agreement. From these observations, it becomes apparent that isotopic interpretations using human hair should be used with extreme caution and additional work is needed for its use in forensic and dietary research.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
We present the analysis of HD 181068 which is one of the first triply eclipsing triple system discovered. Using Kepler photometry, ground based spectroscopic and interferometric measurements, we determined the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. We show that the oscillations observed in the red giant component of the system are tidally forced oscillations, while one of the most surprising results is that it does not show solar-like oscillations.
The endemic Sumatran striped rabbit Nesolagus netscheri, categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, is one of the rarest lagomorphs and little is known about its ecology, status or distribution. After nearly a decade with no published sightings, new camera-trap photos have been taken and observations made in Bukit Barisan Seletan and Kerinci Seblat National Parks, renewing interest in this rare species. We suggest that Bukit Barisan Seletan National Park is an ideal location to initiate a much needed ecological study of the species. Documentation and protection of a population in this Park would facilitate refinement of study techniques applicable to other areas in Sumatra, including Kerinci Seblat National Park, and thus facilitate an assessment of the status and distribution of the species. We believe that in light of ongoing encroachment and deforestation in many of Sumatra's protected areas it is important to implement immediate conservation initiatives in both parks to ensure the persistence of these known populations.
The sugar content of California wine grapes has increased significantly over the past 10–20 years, and this implies a corresponding increase in the alcohol content of wine made with those grapes. In this paper we develop a simple model of winegrape production and quality, including sugar content and other characteristics as choice variables along with yield. Using this model we derive hypotheses about alternative theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of rising sugar content of grapes, including effects of changes in climate and producer responses to changes in consumer demand. We analyze detailed data on changes in the sugar content of California wine grapes at crush to obtain insight into the relative importance of the different influences. We buttress this analysis of sugar content of wine grapes with data on the alcohol content of wine. (JEL Classification: Q54, Q19, D12, D22)
Thick (>150 μm) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.
Metastasis to the pituitary gland is unusual, and occurs most often in patients with carcinomas of the breast or lung. Despite its propensity for spread to the brain, metastatic melanoma has rarely been described within the sella.
We report two cases of malignant melanoma pathologically confirmed within the pituitary, both metastatic from a primary site on the chest wall. In each patient, transsphenoidal resection of the tumor was incomplete and each received local radiotherapy after surgery.
One patient recurred quickly and developed brain metastasis as well. He died four months after resection of the pituitary metastasis, but the second patient survived six months without recurrence. As intrasellar metastasis portends widespread systemic disease and may be synchronous with parenchymal brain metastasis, survival in such patients is limited regardless of adjunctive therapy.
Such cases are likely to arise more commonly in future due to the increasing incidence of melanoma. Identifying them by imaging alone is difficult due to inconsistent signal characteristics on MRI (as shown by these cases) and the confusion introduced by any associated intratumoral hemorrhage.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children aged 5–7 years. Body-composition measurements were obtained by ADP, 2H dilution and anthropometry in twenty-eight children. Calculation of body volume by ADP was undertaken using adult and children's equations for predicting lung volume and surface area. Fat-free mass (FFM) was calculated using a three-component model. Measured FFM hydration was then compared with values from the reference child. Differences between measured and reference hydration were back-extrapolated, to calculate the error in ADP that would account for any disagreement. Propagation of error was used to distinguish the contributions of methodological precision and biological variability to total hydration variability. The use of children's equations influenced the results for lung volume but not surface area. The mean difference between measured and reference hydration was 0·6 (sd 1·7) % (P < 0·10), equivalent to an error in body volume of 0·04 (sd 0·20) litres (P < 0·30), and in percentage fat of 0·4 (sd 1·9) (P < 0·28). The limits of agreement in individuals could be attributed to methodological precision and biological variability in hydration. It is concluded that accuracy of ADP was high for the whole group, with a mean bias of < 0·5 % fat using the three-component model, and after taking into account biological variability in hydration, the limits of agreement were around ±2% fat in individuals. Paediatric rather than adult equations for lung volume estimation should be used.
In a study correlating carnivore density with study area size, Smallwood & Schonewald (1996) suggested that for larger areas, biologists extrapolate from small, high-density study sites to many unstudied low density sites, but that this approach is invalid because of heterogeneous distribution of animals across the landscape. For wolves (Canis lupus), however, size of study areas may also be a consequence of density. Linear regression of data from 18 recent field studies of wolves indicates that study area size is correlated less strongly to mean numbers of wolves counted in an area (r2=0·24) than to wolf density (r2=0·85). When parameters representing biological features of each study area (average wolf pack territory size, ungulate biomass density index and predominant ungulate species), as well as logistical constraints of the study (number of packs), were made available for inclusion through a stepwise procedure, mean numbers of wolves counted were related (r2=0·94) to number of packs, ungulate biomass and deer, while density was related to both study area size and number of wolves counted (r2=0·91). Study area size was found to be strongly predicted (r2=0·96) by ungulate biomass, wolf territory size and wolf numbers. These results clearly reinforce the idea that biological parameters play an essential role in determining animal numbers and density. It also follows, as emphasized by Smallwood & Schonewald (1996, in press), that extrapolation of census or survey information to larger areas needs to be done carefully to account for actual variation in animal density.
An animal's rate of protein accretion (or nitrogen retention) is determined by the most deficient (or first limiting) amino acid in the diet, in a perfectly balanced (or ideal) protein all essential amino acids and the sum of the non-essential amino acids are equally limiting. If a dietary protein had any amino acids in excess of the ideal pattern, then the removal of any of the excess should not affect nitrogen retention. This principle was used to determine the ideal dietary amino acid pattern for growing pigs.
Three nitrogen balance trials were carried out with a total of 64 gilts of weight from 30 to 55 kg. Casein and a mixture of amino acids were used in the semi-purified diets. The animals were given the diets at the rate of 93 g/kg BW0.75/d in three equal meals mixed with 0.3 L water. The feeding times were 08.30, 12.30 and 17.30. All pigs received their experimental diets for 7 days, made up of 3 days preliminary and a 4-day collection, except that the preliminary period before the first collection in the first period was 7 days. Before the first collection bladder catheters were introduced.
Residual stress was measured in sintered and heat-treated Fe2TiO5 samples with various grain sizes. The influence of texturing was assessed by comparing the residual stress states of samples having randomly oriented grains and highly oriented grains produced through magnetically assisted processing. The residual stress was measured with x-ray diffraction using Cr Kα radiation. Due to the significant texture and the consequential oscillations in the dφψ vs sin2ψ data, the residual stress was calculated using the Marion–Cohen method. Textured samples showed significantly lower residual stresses except when spontaneous microcracking accompanied grain growth in the randomly oriented systems. Elastic modulus measurements showed a direct correlation between the decrease in residual stress and the microcrack density.
A focused ion beam (FIB) system has been applied to prepare a thin foil specimen of Si, MgO and alumina which contained cracks in the plane of foil. It was possible to observe a much larger area at and near a crack tip than has been hitherto possible. FIB was also applied to observation of microstructure near a crack tip evolved during severe rolling contact fatigue in a steel.