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Liposarcomas rarely occur in the parapharyngeal space and only a few case reports exist. For curative therapy of liposarcoma, surgical excision remains the dominant modality. Although a wide surgical margin is important to prevent local recurrence, wide excision is often difficult in the head and neck region.
We report a case of a 19-year-old female with a well-differentiated liposarcoma arising in the parapharyngeal space. We removed the tumour surgically utilising a cervical–parotid approach. The histological diagnosis was well-differentiated sclerosing liposarcoma. There is no recurrence after five years and nine months of follow up.
The patient's age and the tumour site made it difficult for us to make a quantitative diagnosis before the operation. Well-differentiated liposarcoma rarely develop distant metastasis, but often recur locally. The benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy for well-differentiated liposarcoma is still not clear and careful and long-term follow up is necessary.
The objective of this study was to examine temporal and regional variations of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) in a retrospective study using Japanese national surveillance data from 2001 to 2010. We calculated the incidence of sCJD by age and sex, derived the standardized incidence in each of the 47 prefectures, and performed spatial disease clustering analysis. The average annual incidence of sCJD was 1·026 per million in men (637 patients) and 1·132 per million in women (733 patients), a significant sex difference after adjustment for age (P = 0·001). The ratios of familial CJD to sCJD apparently increased between 2001–2005 and 2006–2010, possibly as a result of the nationwide introduction of genetic testing after 2006. Based on the data of 2006–2010, certain geographical clusters of sCJD were identified. The incidence of sCJD was higher in several specific prefectures compared to the national average. Thus, sCJD appears to have regional variations, suggesting the existence of genetic or region-specific factors affecting the incidence of the disease.
To enhance the catalytic activities of zeolites for the polycondensation reactions of humic precursors, Fe was loaded into a zeolite via an ion-exchange reaction and the resulting product was subjected to calcination at 773 K. Two types iron-loaded zeolites were prepared using one equivalent (Fe-Z-1) and 10-equivalents (Fe-Z-10) of Fe2+ to the cation-exchange capacity of a natural zeolite from Niki town (Hokkaido, Japan). X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed that the Fe(II) that was originally loaded into the cation-exchange sites in the zeolite became oxidized to a Fe(III) ionic species during the preparation. The catalytic activities of each zeolite were evaluated, based on the degree of darkening for reaction mixtures containing catechol, glycine and glucose as model humic precursors. The catalytic activities of Fe-Z-1 and Fe-Z-10 were higher than that for an untreated zeolite, and increased with the amount of Fe in the zeolite.
Polycondensation reactions between amino acids and phenols are one of the pathways for the formation of humic substances, and clay minerals are able to catalyse these reactions. To investigate the catalytic power of allophane, an allophane fraction (ALF) was separated from weathered pumice (WP) that contained imogolite as an impurity by taking advantage of differences in sedimentation velocity. The iron content in the separated ALF was increased by up to 3.0% compared to that in the starting WP (1.3%), and the ALF was further treated with sodium dithionate and citric acid (ALF-DC) to remove the iron. The catalytic powers of WP, ALF and ALF-DC were evaluated, based on the degree of darkening of reaction mixtures from polycondensation reactions between catechol and tryptophan, model compounds for precursors of humic substances. The catalytic power for ALF was significantly higher than the corresponding values for WP and ALF-DC. This can be attributed to the high iron content of the ALF, which serves as a Lewis acid that can enhance nucleophilic reactions which occur during the polycondensation reactions.
The growing prominence of the individual as a significant factor in international relations is a striking characteristic of contemporary world politics. Yet the role of the state remains critical to ‘either reducing or exacerbating the underlying causes of threats to human security’ (Lee 2004: 102). The extent to which ‘traditional’ state-centric, and ‘non-traditional’ people-oriented, approaches to security politics are being reconciled in the Asia-Pacific is an increasingly central component of that region's international relations.
Long-standing tendencies by elites within the region to favour the preservation of absolute national sovereignty over the well-being of the citizens who live within a state's boundaries and to prioritise the power of the state over human rights or ‘good global governance’ are softening in the aftermath of recent transnational security events such as the Asian financial crisis, the SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) outbreak, bird flu epidemics and the Indian Ocean tsunami crisis. These events have threatened human safety and welfare across boundaries without regard to traditional security preoccupations by individual states. The importance of external military threats, structural changes that introduce new power balances, and competition over resources, ideology and faith remain critical to the ‘regional–global security nexus’. However, they are increasingly subject to ‘a mutually reinforcing dynamic between state, societal and individual security’ (Hoadley 2006: 20; also see Michael and Marshall 2007: 10).
The IAU Working Group (WG) on Numerical Standards for Fundamental Astronomy has been tasked with updating the IAU Current Best Estimates (CBEs), conforming with the IAU Resolutions, IERS Conventions and Système International d'Unités whenever possible. As part of its effort to achieve this, the WG is working in close cooperation with IAU Commissions 4 and 52, the IERS, and the BIPM Consultative Committee for Units.
The tremendous progress in technology which we have witnessed during the last 30 years has led to enormous improvements of observational accuracy in all disciplines of fundamental astronomy. Relativity has been becoming increasingly important for modeling and interpretation of high accuracy astronomical observations during at least these 30 years. It is clear that for current accuracy requirements astronomical problems have to be formulated within the framework of General Relativity Theory. Many high-precision astronomical techniques have already required the application of relativistic effects, which are several orders of magnitude larger than the technical accuracy of observations. In order to interpret the results of such observations, one has to construct involved relativistic models. Many current and planned observational projects can not achieve their goals if relativity is not taken into account properly. The future projects will require the introduction of higher-order relativistic effects. To make the relativistic models consistent with each other for different observational techniques, to formulate them in the simplest possible way for a given accuracy, and to formulate them in a language understandable for astronomers and engineers who have little knowledge of relativity are the challenges of a multidisciplinary research field called Applied Relativity.
The IAU Division I Working Group on Nomenclature for Fundamental Astronomy (NFA) was established by the IAU XXV General Assembly with the task of providing proposals for new nomenclature associated with the implementation of the IAU XXIV GA resolutions (2000) and to make related educational efforts for bringing the issue to the notice of scientists in the community.
The astrometry course at Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, is reviewed as an example of educational efforts for top-class students, the possible candidates of professional astronomers, in Japan. The method of teaching is unique in the sense that it gives lectures by using incomplete text books both as MS Powerpoint slides posted at a web site, http://chiron.mtk.nao.ac.jp/~toshio/education.html, and as printed materials in the form of self-study notebooks. Also there are self-study notebooks on the related issues; the courses of relativistic astrometry, of rotational motions, of numerical astronomy, and of orbital motions, the last of which is under development.
Dynamic balance involving movement of the centre of gravity is important for the evaluation of street fitness after sedation. The purpose of this study was to compare the recovery of dynamic balance after intravenous sedation with propofol or midazolam, and to investigate the usefulness of simple dynamic balance tests in evaluating the recovery.
Fourteen young male volunteers underwent intravenous sedation with propofol and midazolam for 1 h each at an interval of more than 1 week. Computerized dynamic posturography using a multi-axial tilting platform, the 10-m maximum-speed walking test and the timed ‘up & go’ test (subjects stand up from a chair, walk 5 m and back with maximum speed and sit down again) were performed before and after sedation. The increase in each variable of the tests described above represents a reduction of function.
The score of the computerized dynamic posturography was significantly lower in propofol sedation than that in midazolam sedation until 40 min after the end of sedation (P = 0.006). The scores of maximum-speed walking test and timed ‘up & go’ test were significantly lower in propofol sedation than those in midazolam sedation till 60 min after the end of sedation, respectively (P = 0.035 and 0.042). The timed ‘up & go’ and maximum-speed walking tests were well and significantly correlated with computerized dynamic posturography in midazolam sedation (timed ‘up & go’ test vs. computerized dynamic posturography: r = 0.66, P < 0.01; and maximum-speed walking test vs. computerized dynamic posturography: r = 0.53, P < 0.01).
The timed ‘up & go’ and maximum-speed walking tests are useful simple dynamic balance tests well correlated with precise computerized dynamic posturography for the evaluation of the recovery of dynamic balance from midazolam sedation in younger adults.
A new SSMR process to produce ultra-fine-grained hot strip is introduced,
featuring: closely spaced rolling stands, continuous high
speed rolling with moderately large reductions rolling, rapid interpass
cooling and rapid finish rolling cooling. An ultra-fine-grained CMn
steel strip (1μm) is obtained with a 700 MPa yield stress. A
proper choice of the work roll diameter and a careful control of the
friction coefficient should make it possible to keep the rolling force
at a level compatible with the design capacity of a conventional rolling
Background and objective: Computerized dynamic posturography using an intentional postural-sway task can be used to assess body-leaning ability and postural-control ability to prevent falls. Falls are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for the elderly. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the recovery of intentional dynamic balance function after intravenous sedation with midazolam in elderly subjects in comparison with that in young subjects. Methods: Midazolam was administered in small, divided doses over 4–5 min until the Wilson sedation score reached three in 20 young and 18 elderly male volunteers. The dynamic limits of the stability test, in which subjects leaned their body intentionally as indicated by a cursor moving on a computer screen, was determined before (baseline) and 50, 70, 90, 110, and 130 min after administration of midazolam. Results: The changes from baseline values of path sway and movement time 50 min after the administration of midazolam in elderly subjects (106.8 ± 101.0%, 4.6 ± 3.0 s; mean ± SD) were significantly greater than those (32.9 ± 87.2%, 1.9 ± 2.8 s) in young subjects (P = 0.024, P = 0.008), respectively. Conclusions: The elderly show slower recovery of the intentional dynamic balance function than do young adults after intravenous sedation with midazolam.
The orbital fits of multi-planetary systems from radial velocity data has proved to be a complex task. In some cases, different orbital solutions provide similarly good fits, especially when two planets are near mean-motion resonances. Ferraz-Mello et al (2005) and Goździewski et al (2005) showed that the published best fits of systems HD82932 and HD160691 are dynamically unstable, and re-determined their orbital parameters with Monte Carlo and genetic algorithms. In both cases dynamically stable orbits were found with RMS similar to the published orbits. It was also shown that uncertainties in the stellar mass Ferraz Mello et al (2005) and the stellar jitter Gozdziewski et al (2005) can significantly affect the orbital determination. Ford (2005) used a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique to quantify the orbit uncertainties. For some planetary systems he found a strong correlation between the orbital elements and/or significant non-Gaussian error distribution in the parameter space. As a consequence, the actual uncertainties in the orbital fits can be much larger (or smaller) than those published.