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This study examines the relationship between paternal height or body mass index (BMI) and birth weight of their offspring in a Japanese general population. The sample included 33,448 pregnant Japanese women and used fixed data, including maternal, paternal and infant characteristics, from the Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS), an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study. Relationships between paternal height or BMI and infant birth weight [i.e., small for gestational age (SGA) and large for gestational age (LGA)] were examined using a multinomial logistic regression model. Since fetal programming may be a sex-specific process, male and female infants were analyzed separately. Multivariate analysis showed that the higher the paternal height, the higher the odds of LGA and the lower the odds of SGA in both male and female infants. The effects of paternal BMI on the odds of both SGA and LGA in male infants were similar to those of paternal height; however, paternal height had a stronger impact than BMI on the odds of male LGA. In addition, paternal BMI showed no association with the odds of SGA and only a weak association with the odds of LGA in female infants. This cohort study showed that paternal height was associated with birth weight of their offspring and had stronger effects than paternal BMI, suggesting that the impact of paternal height on infant birth weight could be explained by genetic factors. The sex-dependent effect of paternal BMI on infant birth weight may be due to epigenetic effects.
In endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy, surgeons sometimes have concerns about performing an adequate incision with only a narrow intra-cavital view from one direction. In order to overcome these issues, fluoroscopic radiography was used during endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy.
Peri-operative fluoroscopic radiography was utilised to check the position of the diverticuloscope, and to confirm the extent of the incision during surgery. A balloon catheter was used to determine whether the cricopharyngeal muscle was sufficiently resected. Blood loss, peri-operative complications, and functional oral swallowing scale and penetration aspiration scale scores were evaluated.
In 12 out of 15 patients, intra-operative fluoroscopic radiography showed the diverticuloscope positioned in the post-cricoid area, and the cricopharyngeal muscle was raised and the surgery completed without adverse effect. Swallowing functions improved following surgery.
Intra-operative fluoroscopy might improve endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy by allowing surgeons to confirm the extent of resection, and by reducing peri-operative morbidity and complication rates.
This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion.
The function of 36 Eustachian tubes in 18 patients with head and neck cancer were examined sonotubometrically before, during, and 1, 2 and 3 months after, intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Patients with an increase of 5 dB or less in sound pressure level (dB) during swallowing were categorised as being in the dysfunction group. Additionally, radiation dose distributions were assessed in all Eustachian tubes using three dose–volume histogram parameters.
Twenty-two of 25 normally functioning Eustachian tubes before radiotherapy (88.0 per cent) shifted to the dysfunction group after therapy. All ears that developed otitis media with effusion belonged to the dysfunction group. The radiation dose threshold evaluation revealed that ears with otitis media with effusion received significantly higher doses to the Eustachian tubes.
The results indicate a relationship between radiation dose and Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.
To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people.
Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates.
The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs.
Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.
A modification of the growth structure of Eu-doped GaN (GaN:Eu) from a monolayer to a multilayer structure (MLS) consisting of alternating GaN and GaN:Eu, was shown to enhance the emission properties. Similarly, lowering the growth temperature of the GaN:Eu to 960°C nearly doubled the photoluminescence emission intensity, and also enhanced device performance. Hence, to design a higher power GaN:Eu red LED, a multilayer structure consisting of 40 pairs of alternating GaN and GaN:Eu was grown at 960°C. This combination resulted in the fabrication of an LED with a maximum output power of 110 μW, which is 5.8 times more output power per GaN:Eu layer thickness as compared to the best previously reported device. Moreover, it was found that the MLS sample grown at 960°C maintained a high crystal quality with low surface roughness, which enabled an increase in the number of pairs from 40 pairs to 100 pairs. An MLS-LED consisting of 100 pairs of alternating GaN/GaN:Eu layers was successfully fabricated, and had a maximum output power of 375 μW with an external quantum efficiency of 4.6%. These are the highest values reported for this system.
Spherical nylon projectiles of 7mm diameter and up-to 4km/s velocities were penetrated into three types of targets; aluminum multisheet stacks, foamed polystyrene, and 1-atm air. Penetration depth, recovery rate of the projectiles were determined as a function of projectile velocity and target density, and a new type of dust collector is proposed.
A series of Ce3+ doped Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 phosphors with tunable emission were successfully synthesized by traditional solid state reaction. The crystal structure and photoluminescence properties were studied through X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra. The results indicated that Ca8La2(PO4)6O2:Ce3+ exhibited color-tunable emission due to the 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ ions under different wavelength excitation. The optimal doping content of Ce3+ ions in Ca8La2(PO4)6O2 was found to be 5 mol%. The site-selective photoluminescence property and the reason for red-shift of the emission band along with Ce3+ content and the excitation wavelength were also studied in detail.
Blue and Green long-persistent luminescence materials have been fully developed, and are well featured in production and application. However, long-wavelength emitting materials are very rare relatively. This paper presents some work from our laboratory on the recent progress in long-wavelength emitting long-persistent luminescence materials: Sr3Al2O5Cl2: Eu2+, Tm3+, Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ and Ca2BO3Cl: Eu2+, Dy3+. The initial intensity of Sr3Al2O5Cl2: Eu2+, Tm3+ can reach nearly 5000 mcd/m2 and its afterglow can last about 220 min at recognizable intensity level. Sr2SnO4: Sm3+ has a red emission and its afterglow time of which sintered in vacuum atmosphere increased substantially. With optimum doping concentration and sufficient excitation with UV light, the yellow afterglow of Ca2BO3Cl: Eu2+, Dy3+ can persist over 48 h.
Excitation of multiple Er3+ ions upon absorption of a single high-energy photon increases Er-related emission at 1.5 μm, and therefore enhances UV/visible-to-IR photon conversion efficiency. Here we investigate this effect for layers of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with silicon nanocrystals by measuring the quantum yield of 1.5 µm Er-related emission. We demonstrate dramatic increase of the emission commencing for excitation energies above a certain threshold value, as the number of Er3+ ions excited upon absorption of a single incoming photon increases. By comparing differently prepared materials, we show that the actual value of this threshold energy and the rate of the observed increase of the quantum yield depend on sample characteristics – the size of Si nanocrystals and the ratio of Er3+ ions and nanocrystals concentrations.
Spectral shifts of the emission lines of Erbium ions in Lithium Niobate are used to determine the build-up of intrinsic electric fields under intense light irradiation. The observed spectral shifts can be translated into internal electric fields through a calibration using applied external fields. The studies show that a substantial field can be created locally (up to 150kV/mm) with observed occasional electric breakthroughs that have a corresponding field strength of up to 35kV/mm. In addition, a modification of some Erbium incorporation sites is observed suggesting its relationship with a defect that can by photo-ionized, such as Fe2+/Fe3+.
In this study, we evaluate the electrical characteristics of the silicon on insulator (SOI) layer made by the wafer bonding method using a photoconductivity modulation method, in other words, noncontact laser beam induced conductivity/current (LBIC) method. The He-Ne laser pulse (λ= 633nm, pulse width=2ms) is used as the carrier-injection light source.
The detected signal intensity decreases at the void area as compared with at the center area of the SOI layer where there are no voids. The positions of the voids revealed by the proposed method are in good agreement with those by X-ray topography. We also measure the lifetime using the photoconductivity decay method using the laser diode. The lifetime at the void area is much shorter than that at the center area. It is considered that the decrease in the detected signal intensity at the void area is due to reduction in the minority carrier lifetime.
It is well discussed about biological effect to high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal and known that the biofilm is considered to be the uncertain factor to estimate for migration of radioactive elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the microbial effect of Cs migration in groundwater interacted with rock surface. Specially, we focus on Cs behavior at the rock surface surrounded by biofilm. The most important factor is the Cs sorption and diffusion to the microbe and/or their biofilm. Generation of bio-colloid absorbed with Cs and retardation of Cs by their matrix diffusion in rock will be influenced by these phenomena. We introduce about scenario analysis for biofilm and a simple Cs diffusion test with and without sulfur reducing bacteria (SRB) which is well known as easy to produce biofilm on the rock surface in order to clarify the existence effect of the bacteria at the rock surface. The Cs diffusion experiment, using Desulfovivrio desullfuricans as SRB, indicated that microbial effect was less to through their biofilm in the experimental condition. We consider that Cs is easy to contact the rock surface even if surrounded biofilm and not effect to retardation by matrix diffusion scenario.
A serious sugarcane pest, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, remains in the soil during most of its life cycle except for a short period for mating. Mating disruption by an artificial release of the sex pheromone (R)-2-butanol (R2B), therefore, may be a feasible method to control this pest. We examined the effects of artificial release of R2B and its related compounds, (S)-2-butanol (S2B) and the racemic 2-butanol (rac-2B), on the mating success of this beetle both in the laboratory and in the field. In flight tunnel experiments, almost all males orientated towards a R2B-releasing source and 40% of them landed on the source. When the atmosphere was permeated with R2B, the frequency of males landing on the model was significantly reduced. Both rac-2B and S2B were less effective, but substantial reduction in landing success by males was achieved at higher rac-2B concentrations. R2B released from polyethylene dispensers in sugarcane plots greatly reduced not only the proportion of females mated with males but also the number of males caught by R2B-baited traps, indicating that male mate-searching behaviour was strongly affected by the released R2B. Similar inhibitory effects on male behaviour were also observed when tube- or rope-type dispensers released high rac-2B concentrations in the field. These results indicate that it would be highly possible to control D. ishigakiensis through the disruption of the sexual communication by releasing either synthetic R2B or rac-2B.
This article provides the key technical niche that alternative rare earth metals and oxides can offer as an alternative to the ones that are under ‘Potential China Export Embargo’. The potential areas of national interest that affected by limited rare earth and the implications of such short supplies on the US businesses are discussed. The paper discusses the technology areas where US based academic and industries have an opportunity in developing the alternate rare earth materials (REM) through innovations in recycling existing rare earth (RE) metals/oxides and develop alternate solutions. Some examples are provided on how the nanotechnology research in the alternative material technologies in the rare earth metals and oxide materials significantly affect the industry trend of rare earth dependence.
X-ray-excited luminescence of GaN doped with Eu ions as a luminescent center was observed in the wavelength range from 350 nm to 650 nm. Three peaks at 375 nm, 550 nm and 622 nm were found. To survey the mechanism of the photoluminescence due to non-resonance excitation, photoluminescence X-ray excitation spectra are also measured. The mechanism of the luminescence occurrence was briefly discussed based on the model developed by Emura et al.
We report site-selective studies of the Zeeman splittings that are observed for magnetic fields up to 6.6T for different Eu incorporation sites in GaN. Utilizing resonant excitation with visible light, we are able to distinguish the site and find for one center (Eu1) a splitting into five components as expected for C3v symmetry. The corresponding g-values are 1.66 and 1.90. The two lines of another center Eu2 each split into two levels corresponding to g-values of 1.9 and 2.84. Most surprisingly a third center, for which only one line is clearly identified, a g-value of 6.16 is found which is larger than can be explained for a 7F2 purely ionic Eu state.
Inorganic erbium-doped glasses are widely used in telecommunications due to the sharp intra-atomic 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition in the 4f orbital of erbium resulting in an emission at ∼ 1.5 μm, which is the low loss window of silica optical fibres. The limited erbium concentration of about 1020 ions.cm−3 in inorganic erbium-doped glasses and the low absorption coefficient of the Er3+ ions, imply that relatively long lengths of fibre are required. The organic erbium complexes present higher absorption cross sections due to the photosensitization of erbium by organic conjugated ligands and broader emission bands than those of the free Er3+ ion. Such properties open the possibility to develop compact, low power and broadband infrared emitting devices. We present the study of a highly doped organic thin film obtained from organic erbium complexes deposited by a vacuum sublimation technique. This deposition method allows the realization of an erbium-doped thin film without the help of an organic polymer matrix, which is a potential source of vibrationnal luminescence quenching. The ligands used in the present study are fluorinated in order to limit the vibrationnal quenching of the ligand itself, and to increase the volatility of the complexes. In this paper, we report the synthesis, the sublimation process and the characterization of the thin films.
Nano-colloids and nano-crystals doped with ions of rare-earth elements have recently attracted a lot of attention of scientific community. This attention is due to unique physical, chemical and optical properties attributed to nanometer size of the particles. They have great potential of being used in applications spanning from new types of lasers, especially blue and UV lasers, phosphorous display monitors, optical communications, and fluorescence imaging. In this paper we investigate the infrared-to-visible upconversion luminescence in bulk crystals doped with ytterbium and holmium co-doped and ytterbium and thulium co-doped NaYF4 upconversion phosphors. The phosphors were prepared by using simple co-precipitation synthetic method. The initially prepared phosphor has very weak upconversion fluorescence. The fluorescence significantly increased after the phosphor was annealed at a temperature of 600 0C. Nanocolloids of this phosphor were obtained using methanol as solvents and they were utilized as laser filling medium in photonic crystal fibers. Under 980 nm laser excitation very strong upconversion signals were obtained for ytterbium and holmium co-doped phosphor at 541 nm, 646 nm and 751 nm, and 376 nm, 476 nm, 646 nm, 696 nm and 803 nm for ytterbium and thulium co-doped phosphor. The particle sizes of the nanocolloids were analyzed using Atomic Force Microscope. The reported nanocolloids are good candidates for fluorescent biosensing applications and also as a new laser filling medium in fiber lasers.