To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the thickness of N radical irradiated InN template with crystallographic quality and electrical properties of InN film grown with the previously proposed method, in situ surface modification by radical beam irradiation. In this study, three InN samples were grown with this method on different thickness of irradiated templates. The crystallographic quality of InN films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and the electrical properties were studied by Hall effect measurement. InN grown on 100 nm thick irradiated template shows lower full-width at half-maximum of X-ray rocking curves and lower carrier concentration compared to InN grown on 200 nm and 450 nm thick irradiated templates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that threading dislocation density in the InN film decreased by an order of magnitude to ∼4.6×109cm-2. These results suggest that this method is possible for reduction of threading dislocation density in InN and the thickness of irradiated template should be minimized for higher crystallographic quality and electrical properties of the entire InN film.
The mode of onset and the course of schizophrenia illness exhibit substantial individual variations. Previous studies have pointed out that the mode of onset affects the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and clinical outcomes, such as cognitive and social functioning. This study attempted to clarify the association between the DUP and clinical features, taking the different modes of onset into consideration, in a prospective longitudinal study examining patients with first-episode schizophrenia.
This study was conducted in six areas of Japan. Patients with first-episode schizophrenia were followed for over 18 months. Cognitive function, psychopathology, and social functioning were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 18-month follow-up points.
We identified 168 patients and sufficient information was available to determine the DUP and the mode of onset for 156 patients (92.9%): 79 had an acute onset, and 77 had an insidious onset. The DUP was significantly associated with quality of life (QOL), social functioning, and cognitive function at most of the follow-up points in the insidious-onset group. The DUP and negative symptoms at baseline were significant predictors of cognitive function at the 18-month follow-up in the insidious-onset group.
The present results further support the hypothesis that the DUP affects QOL, social functioning, and cognitive function over the course of illness, especially in patients with an insidious onset. Effective strategies for detecting and caring for individuals with insidious onset early during the course of schizophrenia will be essential for achieving a full patient recovery.
We successfully fabricated corundum-structured α-(InFe)2O3 alloy films on sapphire substrates by inserting α-Fe2O3 buffer layers. The ion compositions in the α-(In1-xFex)2O3 films, x, were artificially tuned for the entire range from 0 to 1 by changing the ion precursor composition in source solution. Magnetic measurements revealed that the α-(In1-xFex)2O3 (x = 0.13) alloy film showed ferromagnetism at 5 K.
Corundum structured α-(GaFe)2O3 alloy thin films were obtained on c-plane sapphire substrates by the mist chemical vapor deposition method. Wide range of X-ray diffraction 2θ/θ scanning measurements indicated that these crystals were epitaxially grown on c-plane sapphire substrates and these are no other crystal oriented phase. The cross-sectional and plane-view transmission electron microscope images showed the growth along the c-axis of α-(GaFe)2O3 thin films on sapphire substrates, forming joint of columnar structure. The non-doped α-(GaFe)2O3 thin films showed ferromagnetic properties at 300 K, though the origin of ferromagnetism still remained unresolved. In order to enhance the spin-carrier interaction, Sn doped α-(GaFe)2O3 alloy thin films were fabricated on c-plane sapphire substrates. X-ray diffraction 2θ/θ and ω scanning measurement results indicated that the highly-crystalline films were epitaxially grown on substrates in spite of the Sn-doping.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
Epitaxial Fe-Te-Se thin films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition at 250 ~ 600 °C on SrTiO3 (100, STO), MgO (100), LaAlO3 (100, LAO) and CaF2 (100) single crystal substrates. Best superconducting film was grown on CaF2: Tconset = 20.0 K and Tc0 = 16.18 K with Tdep = 300 °C, 45000 pulses, 3 Hz. The critical current density Jc at 4.2 K was 0.41×106A/cm2 at 0 T and 0.23×106 A/cm2 at 9 T. Angular dependence of Jc showed broad c-axis correlated peak when B ≥ 3 T.
Changes in critical current properties depending on growth temperature (Ts) were clarified for Ba-Nb-O-doped YBa2Cu3Oy (Y123) films deposited by YAG- and excimer-PLD. Due to the introduction of Ba-Nb-O-nanorods, a vortex-Bose-glass-like behavior emerged as irreversibility lines and in-field critical current densities (Jcs) were improved. Crossover magnetic fields (Bcr) and in-field Jcs increased with the increase in Ts for the Y123 films with nanorods. These Ts-dependent critical current properties were attributable to the changes in morphology of the nanorods with Ts and were independent of laser source in PLD apparatuses. For the fabrication of RE123 coated conductors containing nanorods, optimization of Ts with taking both materials of RE123 matrix and nanorod into account is necessary to achieve higher in-field Jc.
The purpose of this research is to develop a fabrication technique of microstructures on nonplanar substrates, investigating so called, optical softlithography. In addition, PDMS roller stamps were duplicated from these structures on curved substrates as the mold, roll micro contact printing was performed successfully.
Micro structuring on nonplanar substrates has not been fully established yet, although several fabrication methods, such as laser direct writing and modified photolithography, were proposed. Moreover, those techniques require still expensive and complex processes. To overcome those drawbacks, optical softlithography using flexible photomasks was developed . Firstly, SU-8 micro structures were fabricated on concave substrates by optical softlithography using PDMS flexible photomasks. As a result, SU-8 structures with 2.5 μm line width and high aspect ratio over 7.9 were fabricated on a concave substrate. Also, experimental parameters for optical softlithography were investigated and established for further fabrications and applications. In addition, the tilting structures were confirmed due to the vertical UV exposure method.
Next, Based on these novel 3D patterning technologies, PDMS roller stamps were fabricated and roll micro contact printing was performed. The roll micro contact printing was investigated by using the customized roll micro contact printing apparatus and the flexible pressure sensor system. We expect this technique can provide various sized roller stamps with various micro patterns for μCP process as well as roll micro contact printing process.
Bulk EuTiO3 is known as a compound in which spin and soft phonon mode is strongly coupled. Recent theoretical study suggests that application of stress or formation of strain leads to a drastic change in magnetic and dielectric properties of EuTiO3 and that so-called multiferroic properties emerge under such a situation. In the present study, effect of strain induced by a substrate, on which EuTiO3 thin film is deposited, on the magnetic properties of the film has been experimentally examined. By using a pulsed laser deposition method, EuTiO3 thin film has been deposited on different kinds of substrate, i.e., LaAlO3, SrTiO3, and DyScO3; the lattice parameter of these compounds is smaller than, just the same as, and larger than that of EuTiO3, respectively. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms that the strain induced in the plane of as-deposited EuTiO3 thin films on different substrates is coincident with the lattice parameter of the substrate compounds. Also, all the as-deposited EuTiO3 thin films manifest elongation of lattice in a direction perpendicular to the film surface. Temperature dependence of magnetization indicates that all the thin films exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at low temperatures. The magnetization at 2 K under a magnetic field of 100 Oe is the highest for EuTiO3 on DyScO3 and the lowest for EuTiO3 on LaAlO3. The experimental result is coincident with the first-principles calculations which predict that ferromagnetic spin configuration becomes more stable as the lattice volume of EuTiO3is increased.
Organic solar cells with PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer or P3HT:PCBM active layer deposited by a novel solution-based mist deposition technique were fabricated and demonstrated. The device with mist-deposited PEDOT:PSS layer showed higher short circuit current density and power conversion efficiency than those of the one with spin-coated PEDOT:PSS layers. The device with mist-deposited P3HT:PCBM layer also performed with higher power conversion efficiency. The results encourage the promising potential of the mist deposition method for device fabrication.
Maternal food restriction is known to cause developmental hypertension in offspring. We have previously shown that maternal high-protein diet can reverse fetal programming of hypertension and that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma were increased by maternal high-protein intake. Then, we hypothesized that isocaloric supplementation with BCAA to a maternal food restriction can reverse the adverse outcome. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups at 7.5 days postcoitum: normally nourished (NN) and 70% undernourished (UN) groups with and without BCAA supplementation (NN–standard diet (SD), NN–BCAA, UN–SD and UN–BCAA groups). Compared with pups in the NN groups, those in the UN–SD group had significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 8 and 16 weeks of age (P < 0.05). However, the elevation of SBP was not observed in offspring in the UN–BCAA group. Offspring glomeruli number of the UN groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the NN groups, independent of BCAA supplementation. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 (ATR2) mRNA and protein expression in the kidney was significantly augmented in the UN–BCAA group at 30 weeks of age. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension together with increased ATR2 expression in adult offspring kidney.
Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nanofibers were fabricated with an association of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) by electrospinning. A mixture of P3HT/PVP in a mixed solvent of chlorobenzene and methanol was electrospun to form composite fibers with 60 nm - 2 μm in diameter, followed by getting rid of PVP by selective extraction. After extraction, pure P3HT nanofibers were obtained as a spindle-like structure with wrinkled surface. The nanofibers obtained exhibit specific features of strong interchain contribution as investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron investigations. Bulk heterojunction P3HT:PCBM nanofibers with ~200 nm in diameters were also successfully fabricated by using the same technique. The preliminary results from the study of P3HT:PCBM nanofiber-based photovoltaic cells with conversion efficiency over 0.2% could be achieved.
In order to measure precisely the polarization of Crab Nebula and Cygnus X-1, we have been developing a hard X-ray polarimeter for balloon-borne experiments called PHENEX (Polarimetry of High ENErgy X-rays). It consists of several detectors called unit counters. The unit counter has a detection efficiency of 20% and a modulation factor of 53% at 80 keV. Up to now, we have finished the installation of eight unit counters to the polarimeter, that will be launched in Spring 2009 to observe the Crab Nebula. If the polarization of this source is more than 30%, the PHENEX polarimeter will be able to measure the degree and the direction of the polarization with errors less than 10% and 10°, respectively.
X-ray astronomy has been much advanced by three observations: spectroscopy, timing, and imaging. Also in the hard X-ray region, these three observations will be realized by ASTRO-H and XEUS. However, the observation of the polarization is at the moment left out in spite of its potential usefulness. This is because of the difficulty of developing polarimeters with high sensitivity. Since the origin of the polarization is often due to nonthermal radiation processes such as synchrotron radiation, observations in the hard X-ray region are possibly more important than those in the soft X-ray region: it is expected that the degree of polarization in the hard X-ray region would be higher than that at lower energies.
Following an outbreak of vanA-positive Enterococcus faecium in 2005 in Kyoto prefecture, regional surveillance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) was initiated. This revealed vanA- or vanB-positive Enterococcus gallinarum in multiple facilities. Eighty-eight vanA-positive E. gallinarum faecal carriers from 12 facilities and ten vanB-positive E. gallinarum faecal carriers from eight facilities were found. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of the first isolate from each facility showed that 11 of the 12 vanA isolates and three of the eight vanB-positive E. gallinarum isolates belonged to a single clone. This study confirms the clonal spread of vanA- or vanB-positive E. gallinarum in a region and underlines the importance of surveillance of VRE for the presence of vancomycin resistance determinants.
An overview on current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation is given. This report is based on the results of the “Second International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation” held in Potsdam/Germany in September 2007. The properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering are presented for the compensation of phase distortions in combination with novel laser technology like ceramics materials but also for e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, and slow light. Photorefractive nonlinear mirrors and resonant refractive index gratings are addressed as phase conjugating mirrors in addition.
The immobilization of U(VI) by C-S-H phases under conditions relevant for the cementitious near field of a repository for radioactive waste has been investigated. C-S-H phases have been synthesized using two different procedures: the “direct reaction” method and the “solution reaction” method.
The stabilities of alkaline solutions of U(VI) (presence of precipitates or colloidal material) were studied prior to sorption and co-precipitation tests in order to determine the experimental U(VI) solubility limits. These U(VI) solubility limits were compared with the U(VI) solubilities obtained from thermodynamic speciation calculations assuming the presence of combinations of different solid U(VI) phases. The solid phase controlling U(VI) solubility in the present experiments was found to be CaUO4(s).
The U(VI) uptake kinetics and sorption isotherms on C-S-H phases with different C:S ratios were determined under various chemical conditions; e.g., sorption and co-precipitation experiments and different pH’s. U(VI) was found to sorb fast and very strongly on C-S-H phases with distribution ratios (Rd values) ranging in value between 103 L kg-1 and 106 L kg-1. Both sorption and co-precipitation experiments resulted in Rd values which were very similar, thus indicating that no additional sorption sites for U(VI) were generated in the co-precipitation process. Furthermore, C-S-H synthesis procedures did not have a significant influence on U(VI) uptake. The U(VI) sorption isotherms were found to be non-linear, and further, increasing Ca concentrations resulted in increasing U(VI) uptake. The latter observation suggests that U(VI) uptake is controlled by a solubility-limiting process, while the former observation further indicates that pure Ca-uranate is not the solubility-limiting phase. It is proposed that a solid solution containing Ca and could control U(VI) uptake by C-S-H phases.
Our work presents results on human plasma protein adsorption onto a polyacrylic acid (PAA) film prepared via surface wave plasma (SWP) induced graft polymerization. The PAA film prepared in this manner is characterized by a carboxyl functional group and a constant contact angle in water of 35°. The adsorption kinetics of human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) and human serum albumin (HSA) proteins were measured by in-situ UV-ATR spectroscopy. The free energy of adsorption on PAA treated as well as untreated surfaces was −28 kJ M−1 and −22 kJ M−1 for HPF and HSA, respectively, regardless of surface chemistry. We determined that 14 μM and 6 μM HPF concentrations are enough to cover half of the maximum possible of surface coverage on silica and PAA film, respectively. HSA protein concentrations of 154 μM and 118 μM are enough to cover half of the maximum accessible surface of silica and PAA film, respectively. For surface treatment of implants with PAA polymer and protein, the necessary protein concentration for effective surface coverage should be known.