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The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics and meteorological conditions. We used HFMD surveillance data of all 47 prefectures in Japan from January 2000 to December 2015. Spectral analysis was performed using the maximum entropy method (MEM) for temperature-, relative humidity-, and total rainfall-dependent incidence data. Using MEM-estimated periods, long-term oscillatory trends were calculated using the least squares fitting (LSF) method. The temperature and relative humidity thresholds of HFMD data were estimated from the LSF curves. The average temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 12 °C and a higher threshold at 30 °C for risk of HFMD infection. Maximum and minimum temperature data indicated a lower threshold at 6 °C and a higher threshold at 35 °C, suggesting a need for HFMD control measures at temperatures between 6 and 35 °C. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of maximum and minimum temperatures rather than the average temperature, to estimate the temperature threshold of HFMD infections. The results obtained might aid in the prediction of epidemics and preparation for the effect of climatic changes on HFMD epidemiology.
CO observations of the nuclear region of the SABc galaxy M83 have been made with the 45-m telescope at NRO. A bar-like elongation of the CO emission along the optical bar and a velocity field which suggests noncircular motions are found. These results are consistent with predictions based on the theoretical model of barred spiral galaxies. The inflow and concentration of molecular gas in the nucleus of M83 may supply raw material which maintains a burst of star formation there.
The relation between the units and the readings of time and space coordinates of the terrestrial and the barycentric frames is discussed from the viewpoint of general relativity. Attention is paid to the unit of space coordinates since the International Astronomical Union (IAU) regulates only the unit of time coordinate in the above two frames. Two definitions on unit of length are examined and their effects on the numerical expression of coordinate transformation, equations of planetary motions, and those for light propagation time are discussed. A clear conflict is found between the IAU(1976) recommendation on the definition of the time-scales in different frames and the statement that all constants in the IAU(1976) new system of astronomical constants are defined in terms of the international system of units (SI units). In order to dissolve this conflict, one of the two examined definitions on unit of length is proposed to be adopted, which requests the least alteration on the current procedures to analyze the astrometric observations such as radar/laser rangings, range and range-rate measurements, and very long baseline interferometric observations. An interpretation of numerical values in the IAU(1976) system of astronomical constants is also presented. It is stressed that the definition proposed in this paper requires that a slightly different formula from the current one be used in the numerical transformation of coordinates between the terrestrial and the barycentric frames.
A number of orbits are obtained for the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) revolving around a model Galaxy with a massive halo. It is suggested that the SMC approached the LMC as close as 3 to 7 kpc about 200 million years ago, if these clouds have been in a binary state for the past 1010 years, and the Magellanic Stream (MS) is due to the gravitational interaction among the triple system of the Galaxy, LMC, and SMC.
A hydromagnetic model is presented for the bipolar flow of molecular gas from newborn stars and for the radio jet emerging out of active galactic nuclei. We assume a tightly-twisted helical magnetic field in the jet, which can collimate and accelerate the gas along the jet axis. The Lorentz force is also shown to rotate the gas around it.
The treatment of the coordinate systems is briefly reviewed in the Newtonian mechanics, in the special theory of relativity, and in the general relativistic theory, respectively. Some reference frames and coordinate systems proposed within the general relativistic framework are introduced. With use of the ideas on which these coordinate systems are based, the proper reference frame comoving with a system of mass-points is defined as a general relativistic extension of the relative coordinate system in the Newtonian mechanics. The coordinate transformation connecting this and the background coordinate systems is presented explicitly in the post-Newtonian formalism. The conversion formulas of some physical quantities caused by this coordirate transformation are discussed. The concept of the rotating coordinate system is reexamined within the relativistic framework. A modification of the introduced proper reference frame is proposed as the basic coordinate system in the astrometry. The relation between the solar system barycentric coordinate system and the terrestrial coordinate system is given explicitly.
A brief survey is made of recent 21-cm and optical observations of the Magellanic Stream(MS). The space orientation of the Magellanic Clouds is touched upon in relation to modelling the MS. After summarizing a variety of models for the MS, we show that if our Galaxy is massive with a huge dark halo, a tidal model is most suitable for reproducing its characteristic structure and high-negative radial velocity. Past orbits of the Large and the Small Magellanic Cloud (LMC and SMC) are determined uniquely for the last 2×109 yr, if we postulate that the LMC and SMC are bound together for 1010 yr: Highly-noncircular motion of the SMC around the LMC could give a clue to understand some peculiar features associated with the Magellanic Clouds.
To verify the effectiveness and safety of the addition of adipose-derived regenerative cells to autologous fat injection therapy.
Unilateral vocal fold paralysis models were made by cutting the right recurrent laryngeal nerve in two pigs. At day 30, 0.5 ml adipose-derived regenerative cells mixed with 1 ml autologous fat was injected into the right vocal fold of one pig, with the other receiving 0.5 ml Ringer's solution mixed with 1 ml autologous fat. At day 120, fibrescopy, laser Doppler flowmeter, computed tomography, vocal function evaluation and histological assessment were conducted.
Although histological assessment revealed atrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle fibre in both pigs, there was remarkable hypertrophy of the thyroarytenoid muscle fibre in the area surrounding the adipose-derived regenerative cells injection site.
The addition of a high concentration of adipose-derived regenerative cells to autologous fat injection therapy has the potential to improve the treatment outcome for unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
Linearized equations of motion are solved for the self-gravitating gaseous disk in interaction with the Lorentz force due to the bisymmetric spiral (BSS) magnetic fields. Since the pattern velocity of the BSS fields is very close to that of the spiral density wave, a nearly-resonant interaction occurs between these two waves to enhance spiral condensation of gas. The BSS fields seem to compensate the spiral density waves for their secular dispersion.
Large-scale axisymmetric and bisymmetric spiral (ASS and BSS) structures are found of magnetic fields in spiral galaxies by measuring the Faraday rotation of polarized radio emission. Dynamo theory is introduced to explain the field structures, and strong magnetogravitational interaction is suggested to occur between the BSS magnetic fields and spiral density waves. Up-to-date data about the rotation measures RM and redshifts z of QSOs and distant radio galaxies are given for discussing large-scale intergalactic magnetic fields.
Among 13 BL Lacs observed with Ginga, 1H 0323+022, Mkn 421 and PKS 2155-304 exhibited significant variablity during each (typically one day) observation. On the flux-hardness plane, the data points obtained from each source draw a sort of clockwise hysteresis motion. It means that the spectrum hardens before the source gets brighter, while the spectrum softens before the source becomes fainter. Such a soft-lag behavior, first pointed out for PKS2155-304 by Sembay et al. These properties were also confirmed with the discrete cross correlation function technique.
Adopting observed proper motions of the MC's and cluster formation histories of the LMC as observational constraints, we found a new binary orbit for the LMC and SMC in which the geometry and kinematics of the Magellanic Stream are well reproduced. In this orbit, the LMC and SMC experienced very close encouters 0.2 and 3 Gyr ago.
Since the discovery of fading X-rays from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with BeppoSAX (Piro et al. 1997, Costa et al. 1997), world-wide follow-up observations in optical band have achieved the fruitful results. The case of GRB 970228, there was an optical transient, coincides with the BeppoSAX position and faded (Paradijs et al. 1997, Sahu et al. 1997). These optical observations also confirmed the extended component, which was associated with the optical transient. The new transient are fading with a power-law function in time and the later observation of HST confirmed the extended emission is stable (Fruchter et al. 1997). This extended object seems to be a distant galaxy and strongly suggests to be the host.
A tidal model has been introduced to the triple system of the Galaxy, Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (the LMC and SMC hereafter) and successfully reproduced the Magellanic Stream (Murai and Fujimoto 1980; Lin and Lynden-Bell 1982; Gardiner et al. 1994; Gardiner and Noguchi 1995; Lin et al. 1995), a narrow band of diffuse atomic hydrogen gas emerging from the SMC region, passing by the South Galactic Pole along an overhead great circle spanning over 100° (Wannier and Wrixon 1972; Mathewson et al. 1974). The LMC and SMC have a hydrogen bridge and common envelope (Hindman 1964; McGee and Milton 1966) and, therefore, we can consider that they have been in a binary state for the Hubble time, revolving together around the Galaxy with a halo whose mass is larger than 1012M⊙ if the flat rotation curve extends up to more than 100 kpc. The strong gravitational force due to this heavy halo attracts the Magellanic Stream and produces the high negative radial velocities (Murai and Fujimoto 1980).
In this paper the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy program at the University of Adelaide is described. VHE gamma rays with energies above ~5 × 1011eV are observed using the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. Results from the first three years observations at Woomera and the current upgrading of the telecope are described. The CANGAROO project, a collaboration between the University of Adelaide and a number of Japanese institutions, is also introduced.
The CANGAROO project incorporates two Čerenkov imaging telescopes at Woomera to obtain stereo images of very high-energy gamma-ray (and cosmic-ray) showers. The first stereo observations, with one imaging system, were made in March 1992, and preliminary stereo imaging observations began in July 1992. This paper describes the stereo imaging technique, the sources under investigation, and the indications from the first data sets.
It is now firmly established that a small anisotropy of the galactic cosmic rays exists, observable from Earth as a variation of intensity in sidereal time. The problem now is to determine more clearly the characteristics of the anisotropy and, in particular, its detailed spatial structure and how it depends upon the energy and composition of the cosmic rays. This is a very difficult task and, in the final analysis, may not be fully achievable from Earth-based observations. The purpose of the present paper is to describe briefly an installation now operating in Tasmania to provide further information on the spatial structure of the anisotropy.
In fish, in vitro fertilization is an important reproductive tool used as first step for application of others biotechniques as chromosome and embryo manipulation. In this study, we aimed to optimize gamete quality and their short-term storage from the yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, for future application in laboratory studies. Working with sperm, we evaluated the effects of spawning inducers (carp pituitary gland and Ovopel® [(D-Ala6, Pro9-NEt) – mGnRH+metoclopramide]) and the presence of female on sperm motility. Additionally, we developed new procedures for short-term storage of sperm and oocytes. Briefly, sperm motility was higher when male fish were treated with carp pituitary gland (73.1±4.0%) or Ovopel® (79.5±5.5%) when compared with the control group treated with 0.9% NaCl (55.6±27.2%; P=0.1598). Maintenance of male fish with an ovulating female fish also improved sperm motility (74.4±7.4%) when compared with untreated male fish (42.1±26.1%; P=0.0018). Storage of sperm was optimized in modified Ringer solution, in which the sperm was kept motile for 18 days at 2.5°C. The addition of antibiotics or oxygen decreased sperm motility, but partial change of supernatant and the combination of those conditions improve storage ability of sperm. Fertilization ability of oocytes decreased significantly after storage for 30, 60 90 and 120 min at 5, 10, 15 and 20°C when compared with fresh oocytes (P=0.0471), but considering only the stored samples, the optimum temperature was 15°C. Those data describe new approaches to improve semen quality and gametes short-term storage in yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae and open new possibilities in vitro fertilization.
Cicatricial pemphigoid can affect all mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract; however, hypopharyngeal involvement is less frequent.
This paper presents a 69-year-old male diagnosed as having cicatricial pemphigoid who was experiencing difficulty swallowing. Videofluorography with barium swallow demonstrated narrow flow through the medial hypopharynx, but not through the lateral hypopharynx. Direct laryngoscopy revealed that the postcricoid hypopharyngeal lumen had become narrow due to circumferential scar formation. Interestingly, detached thin membranous webs were observed beyond the circumferential scar.
This report describes important videofluorographic and direct laryngoscopic findings showing rare hypopharyngeal involvement in a case of cicatricial pemphigoid.