Vitamin A plays an important role in fetal renal and cardiovascular development, yet there has been little research on its effects on cardiovascular risk factors later in childhood. To examine this question, we followed the children of women who had been participants in a cluster-randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of weekly supplementation with 7000 μg retinol equivalents of preformed vitamin A or 42 mg of β-carotene from 1994 to 1997 in rural Nepal. Women received their assigned supplements before, during and after pregnancy. Over a study period of 3 years, 17,531 infants were born to women enrolled in the trial. In 2006–2008, we revisited and assessed 13,118 children aged 9–13 years to examine the impact of maternal supplementation on early biomarkers of chronic disease. Blood pressure was measured in the entire sample of children. In a subsample of 1390 children, venous blood was collected for plasma glucose, Hb1Ac and lipids and a morning urine specimen was collected to measure the ratio of microalbumin/creatinine. Detailed anthropometry was also conducted in the subsample. The mean ± s.d. systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 97.2 ± 8.2 and 64.6 ± 8.5 mm Hg, respectively, and about 5.0% had high-blood pressure (⩾120/80 mm Hg). The prevalence of microalbuminuria (⩾30 mg/g creatinine) was also low at 4.8%. There were no differences in blood pressure or the risk of microalbuminuria between supplement groups. There were also no group differences in fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides or cholesterol. Maternal supplementation with vitamin A or β-carotene had no overall impact on cardiovascular risk factors in this population at pre-adolescent age in rural Nepal.