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The Fused Deposition of Ceramics (FDC) technique was used to fabricate ceramic skeletons for development of piezoelectric composite transducers for medical imaging. The green parts were designed in order to have 30 vol% of PZT-5H ceramic in the final composites. Physical characterization of the sintered samples revealed that 96% of the theoretical density was achieved. Optical microscopy showed that defects, such as small roads and bubbles were eliminated due to powder processing improvements. The electromechanical properties of the final composites were found to be similar to properties obtained for conventionally made composites.
Novel piezoelectric ceramic and ceramic/polymer composite structures were fabricated by solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for sensor and actuator applications. SFF techniques including fused deposition of ceramics (FDC) and Sanders prototyping (SP) were utilized to fabricate a variety of complex structures directly from a computer aided design (CAD) file. Novel composite structures including volume fraction gradients (VFG) and staggered rods, as well as actuator designs such as tubes, spirals and telescopes were made using the flexibility provided by the above processes. VFG composites were made by SP technique with the ceramic content decreasing from the center towards the edges. This resulted in a reduction of side lobe intensity in the acoustic beam pattern. The FDC technique was used to manufacture high authority actuators utilizing novel designs for the amplification of strain under applied electric field. The design, fabrication and electromechanical properties of these composite and actuator structures are discussed in this paper.
Let V be a class of similar algebras. An algebra is V-injective provided and whenever and fis a one-to-one homomorphism from into and g is a homomorphism from into , then there is a homomorphism h from into such that h º f = g. So is injective provided all diagrams of the following sort can be completed.
Dually, is V-projective provided and whenever and f is a homomorphism from onto and g is a homomorphism from into , then there is a homomorphism h from into such that f º h = g. So is projective provided all diagrams of the following sort can be completed:
This usage of the words “projective” and “injective” differs somewhat from the usage current in category theory.
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