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The adsorption and desorption of cesium onto layered minerals, zeolite and geochemical reference samples were studied. 0.5 g of bentonite and mica were able to adsorb 71.2 and 51.5 mg of cesium, respectively, from 50 mL of deionized water containing 200 mg/L of cesium under neutral pH condition. These amounts of cesium adsorption were greater than those reported for vermiculites (8.9 and 5.6 mg, respectively). Additionally, the cesium adsorption on mica and vermiculite remained essentially unchanged under seawater conditions, but it decreased drastically on zeolite. The cesium desorption from the layered minerals was promoted by the addition of ammonium ions, namely trioctylmethylammonium chloride and zephiramine. These ammonium ions desorb cesium from the interlayers of the minerals without destroying the mineral structure. The cesium desorption procedure using quaternary ammonium ions would be extremely useful for decontamination of soil containing the layered minerals with adsorbed radioactive cesium.
An overview of the Czech national R&D project HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser) is presented. The project focuses on the development of advanced high repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems with energies in the range from mJ to 100 J and repetition rates in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Some applications of these lasers in research and hi-tech industry are also presented.
In this paper, the effect of shock compression on the synthesis of a Bi-based oxide superconductor was investigated. Bi1.85-Pb0.35-Sr1.90-Ca2.05-Cu3.05-Ox calcined powder was shock-compacted around 20 GPa and 30 GPa, and divided specimens were annealed at 845 °C for 1, 6 and 48 hours. The specimens were evaluated by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope.
Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is one of the elegant material because its uses in various fields. In this study, AgNPs have been prepared by using Peltophorum pterocarpum (PP) flower extract as reducing and capping agent and aqueous silver nitrate (aq.AgNO3) as silver precursor. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Ultra Violet - Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), which reveals the formation of nanosized particles. The UV-Vis spectrum shows an absorption peak around 430nm. HR-TEM images of AgNPs with clear morphology and well dispersed prepared AgNPs.
In this paper, the authors have reported the structural and photoluminescence (PL) studies of pure and nickel (Ni) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles synthesized by the solution combustion method. The structural, morphological and optical studies are carried out by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and PL spectra, respectively. The XRD pattern indicates that the prepared particles are in hexagonal wurtzite structure with the average crystalline size is around 35-50nm. Room temperature PL shows the near band edge related emission and the results are related several intrinsic defects in the ZnO nanoparticles.
ZnO nanorods were grown up from as-deposited ZnO film on which the zinc self-catalysts generated by a novel reducing method. Well aligned ZnO nanorods with a uniform high aspect ratio were grown up on multi-annealed samples. The length of nanorods depended significantly on the reaction time in the hydrothermal synthesis.
During the development of oocytes from early antral follicles (EAFs) to antral follicles (AFs), the mitochondrial DNA copy number (Mt DNA number) increases, and granulosa cells markedly proliferate. This study examined the effect of supplementation of culture medium with estradiol-17β (E2) on the in vitro growth of oocytes, and increases in the Mt DNA number, and telomere length during the in vitro culture of oocytes derived from EAFs (0.4–0.7 mm in diameter). The E2 supplementation improved antrum formation and the ratio of oocytes reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage, and there was a significant difference in these values between addition E2 concentrations of 10 μg/ml and 0.1 μg/ml. When the oocytes were cultured in the medium containing 10 μg/ml E2, the Mt DNA number determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) significantly increased, and the ratio of the Mt DNA number at the end of culture to the Mt DNA number at the beginning of the culture was greatly different among cows, and could be predicted by the degree of the difference between the Mt DNA number of oocytes derived from EAFs and that of oocytes derived from AFs (3–6 mm in diameter). When oocytes were cultured for 16 days in a medium containing 10 μg/ml E2 or 0.1 μg/ml E2, the Mt DNA number of oocytes grown in vitro did not differ, but the telomere length of the granulosa cells was significantly greater in the 10 μg/ml E2 group than in the 0.1 μg/ml group. In conclusion, E2 supplementation in culture medium improved the growth of oocytes derived from EAFs, and a high E2 concentration increased the telomere length of the granulosa cells.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene are promising components for the next generation high performance structural and multi-functional composite materials. One of the largest obstacles to create strong, electrically or thermally conductive CNT/CNF composites is the difficulty of getting a good dispersion of the carbon nanomaterials in a matrix. Typically, time-consuming steps of the carbon nanomaterial purification, ultrasound sonication and functionalization are required. We utilized a new approach to grow CNTs/CNFs directly on the surface of matrix, matrix precursor or filler particles. As the precursor matrix and fillers we utilized cement (clinker), copper powder, fly ash particles, soil and sand. Carbon nanomaterials were successfully grown on these materials without additional catalyst. Investigations of the physical properties of the composite materials based on these carbon modified particles revealed enhancement in the mechanical and electrical properties.
This study examined the crystallization of vanadate glasses by using microwave irradiation. A second aim was comparing the thermoelectric properties of crystallized glasses when using microwave irradiation to conventional heating. V2O5-P2O5-Fe2O3-CuO glasses were prepared by using the melt quenching method. These glasses were irradiated by 2.45-GHz microwaves and heated in an electric furnace. MxV2O5 (M= Cu, Fe x=0.26-055) crystals were selectively precipitated by using the microwave irradiation. The crystal growth was also promoted by it. As a result, precipitation crystals formed a fiber-like structure. The electrical conductivity of the microwave irradiated glass was 6.3×101S/m at room temperature, which was three times higher than the value of conventionally-heated glass. The Seebeck coefficient of the microwave irradiated glass was -127 μV/K at room temperature, which was two times higher than that of conventionally-heated glass. This caused the power factor to be improved about 12 times. These results show that microwave irradiation is a potential candidate for obtaining conductive crystallized vanadate glasses.
The present study addressed the effect of the incorporation of Praseodymium species in the BiFeO3(BFO) structure on the corresponding structural and functional properties of powders and films. The level of the doping species varied from 0 at% to 4 at%. BFO powders and thin films were synthesized by a sol-gel method, where glycol was aggregated to the main solvent to increase the viscosity of the precursor solutions and promote their adhesion onto platinum substrates. The development of the host BFO structure was confirmed by XRD analyses of samples annealed at 700°C for one hour (powders) or 500°C for 2 hours (thin films), in air. The average crystallite size varied from 37 nm to 41 nm and 28nm to 40nm for powders and thin films, respectively, due to the increase of the doping level. The incorporation of specific dopant species played an important role in the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior in the material.
We have successfully prepared La0.5Sr0.5MnO3nanowires using a novel hydrothermal synthesis process and studied their magnetic and magnetocaloric properties. The system exhibits an inverse magnetocaloric effect (IMCE) around 175 K indicating presence of significant AFM correlation. The MCE study reveals a clear paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition near room temperature (T ~ 325K) which is followed by onset of AFM at lower temperatures. The development of the FM-like magnetic state at low temperature is attributed to the enhanced double exchange (DE) driven ferromagnetism in AFM state as predicted by recent theoretical studies.
Magnetoelectric (ME) (CoFe2O4)0.3-(BaTiO3)0.7 (CFO-BTO) nanostructures have been synthesized by a combinative using of hydrothermal reaction and polymer-assisted deposition. The feather-like nanostructures have an average diameter of 250nm and lengths up to 5μm, with the single-crystal CFO nanopillars embedded in the BTO matrix. The CFO-BTO nanostructures exhibit good magnetic (Ms=21.0emu/g, Mr=10.4emu/g and Hc=560.7Oe) and ferroelectric properties (Ps=10.5μC/cm2, Pr=5.6μC/cm2), as well as a large ME coefficient of 51.8mV/cmOe. A prominent phonon abnormality has also been detected between 110°C and 140°C. With emphasis on the novel microstructure, the ME response and phonon abnormality of the CFO-BTO nanostructures have been discussed.
Heterostructures composed of transition metal oxides with strong electron correlation offer a unique opportunity to design new artificial materials whose electrical, magnetic and optical properties can be manipulated by tailoring the occupation of the d-orbitals of the transition metal in the compound. This possibility is an implication of symmetry constraints at interfaces with the consequence of a reconstruction of the coupled charge-, spin-, and orbital states of the constituents and their interactions. Novel architectures can be constructed showing functions well beyond charge density manipulations determining the functionality of conventional semiconductor heterostructures. Success in this endeavor requires the mastering of technological prerequisites such as structurally as well as chemically controlled interface preparation down to atomic scales. Additionally, a fundamental understanding of the modifications of the electronic structure at the interface imposed by structural boundary conditions and consequently by the constituent’s orbital occupation is required. A path towards a new generation of electronic devices with multiple functionalities can thus be opened by exploiting the correlation driven interface phenomena. In this paper, the technological challenges and experimental realizations along this concept are described with an emphasis of growth techniques based on the pulsed laser deposition method. As a case study, results of investigations of YBa2Cu3O7/La2/3Ca1/3MnO3superlattices are compiled and the conclusions regarding the orbital manipulation at the interface are used to pave the way for orbital engineering of oxides with electronic structures similar to the cuprates in order to find novel ordered quantum states at the interfaces including magnetism and superconductivity.
The main challenge associated with the synthesis of pure bismuth ferrite (BFO) is the extremely high stability of parasitic or secondary phase Bi-oxides, which contaminates the single ferrite phase and affects the corresponding functional properties. Therefore, any attempt to determine the optimum synthesis conditions conducive to the inhibition of the formation of those impurity phases becomes indispensable. Accordingly, the present work addresses the systematic evaluation of the type of solvent and synthesis parameters to exclusively produce the BFO structure. Nanocrystalline BFO powders were synthesized after thermal treatment of the solid intermediates formed in ethylene glycol and acetic acid media. The experimental work also considered the effect of the excess of Bi species with respect to the BiFeO3stoichiometry and the annealing of the intermediates at different temperatures. The structure formation was confirmed by XRD analysis and magnetic properties were studied by VSM. X-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that powders exhibiting single phase BFO structure were produced after annealing the intermediate which was formed in acetic acid for one hour at 700°C. The average crystallite size and lattice parameter were calculated to be approximately 40 nm and 5.36 Å, respectively. It was also found that the synthesis under 7% of Bi-stoichiometric excess inhibited the formation of the parasitic phases after annealing the intermediate produced in ethylene glycol medium. The saturation magnetization of the powders annealed at 700°C were 0.15 emu/g and 0.17 emu/g when the BFO intermediates were formed in ethylene glycol and acetic acid media, respectively. The corresponding coercivity values were 6 Oe and 21 Oe.
Tb doped gadolinium fluoride nanophosphors embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix is reported for X-ray imaging applications. The nanocomposite scintillators were prepared by a melt-quench method followed by annealing. The GdF3:Tb nanophosphors precipitated within the oxide glass matrix during the processing and their luminescence and scintillation properties were investigated.
Synthesis of FeC2O42H2O nano particles was carried out by thermal double decomposition of solutions of oxalic acid dihydrate (C2H2O4 2H2O) and FeSO4 7H2O employing CATA -2R microwave reactor. Structural elucidation was carried out by employing X-ray diffraction, particle size and shape were studied by transmission electron microscopy and nature of bonding was investigated by Optical absorption and near-infrared spectral studies. The powder resulting from this method is possesses distorted rhombic octahedral structure. The particle grain size is about 50 nm. Details of optical transitions are mentioned in terms of energy states.
Bi1.5Zn1Nb1.5O7 (BZN) epitaxial thin films were prepared on Al2O3with a double ZnO buffer layer by pulsed laser deposition. The pole figure analysis and reciprocal space mapping revealed the single crystalline nature of the thin film. The sharp intense spots in the SAED pattern also indicates the highly crystalline nature of BZN thin film. The electrical properties of the as deposited thin films were investigated by patterning an inter digital capacitor (IDC) structure on BZN. A high tunability was observed in this epitaxially grown thin films.
A water-based BaTiO3 precursor solution, suited for ink-jet printing of hetero-epitaxial BaTiO3 layers on LaAlO3 single-crystal substrates was developed. First, a study on the simultaneous stabilization of Ba2+ and Ti4+ions in a neutral, aqueous environment was performed. Thermal analysis of the precursor was used to select appropriate temperature programs and the rheology of the solutions is studied to optimize dipcoating and later ink-jet printing parameters. On both substrates, it was possible to obtain epitaxial layers of about 200 nm thickness after sintering at temperatures above 1000 °C. Currently, we are adapting the thermal program and heating atmosphere in order to reduce the sintering temperatures, decrease the surface roughness and increase density.