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Rabies is one of the major public health problems in China, and the mortality rate of rabies remains the highest among all notifiable infectious diseases. A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) vaccination rate and risk factors for human rabies in mainland China. The PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical and Wanfang databases were searched for articles on rabies vaccination status (published between 2007 and 2017). In total, 10 174 human rabies cases from 136 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Approximately 97.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 95.1–98.7%) of rabies cases occurred in rural areas and 72.6% (95% CI 70.0–75.1%) occurred in farmers. Overall, the vaccination rate in the reported human rabies cases was 15.4% (95% CI 13.7–17.4%). However, among vaccinated individuals, 85.5% (95% CI 79.8%–83.4%) did not complete the vaccination regimen. In a subgroup analysis, the PEP vaccination rate in the eastern region (18.8%, 95% CI 15.9–22.1%) was higher than that in the western region (13.3%, 95% CI 11.1–15.8%) and this rate decreased after 2007. Approximately 68.9% (95% CI 63.6–73.8%) of rabies cases experienced category-III exposures, but their PEP vaccination rate was 27.0% (95% CI 14.4–44.9%) and only 6.1% (95% CI 4.4–8.4%) received rabies immunoglobulin. Together, these results suggested that the PEP vaccination rate among human rabies cases was low in mainland China. Therefore, standardised treatment and vaccination programs of dog bites need to be further strengthened, particularly in rural areas.
Replications can make theoretical contributions, but are unlikely to do so if their findings are open to multiple interpretations (especially violations of psychometric invariance). Thus, just as studies demonstrating novel effects are often expected to empirically evaluate competing explanations, replications should be held to similar standards. Unfortunately, this is rarely done, thereby undermining the value of replication research.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
Information on morbidity burden of seasonal influenza in China is limited. A multiplier model was used to estimate the incidence and number of outpatient visits for seasonal influenza by age group for the 2015–2016 season in Beijing, the capital of China, based on reported numbers of influenza-like illness consultations and proportions of positive cases from influenza surveillance systems in Beijing, general consultation rates and other parameters from previous studies, surveys and surveillance systems. An estimated total of 1 190 200 (95% confidence interval (CI) 830 400–1 549 900) cases of influenza virus infections occurred in Beijing, 2015–2016 season, with an attack rate of 5·5% (95% CI 3·9–7·2%). These infections resulted in an estimated 468 280 (95% CI 70 700–606 800) outpatient visits, with an attack rate of 2·2% (95% CI 0·3–2·8%). The attack rate of influenza virus infections was highest among children aged 0–4 years (31·9% (95% CI 21·9–41·9%)), followed by children aged 5–14 years (18·7% (95% CI 12·9–24·5%)). Our study demonstrated a substantial influenza-related morbidity in Beijing, China, especially among the preschool- and school-aged children. This suggests that development or modification of seasonal influenza targeted vaccination strategies need to recognize that incidence is highest in children.
In the theory research and engineering practice, more basic inflatable models are essential for the mechanical property analysis of inflatable structures. Firstly, this paper presents a model of the tapered inflatable cantilever beam based on Timoshenko's theory and analyzes its deformation under a concentrated force. Moreover, the following forces resulting from internal pressure and taper ratio are introduced into the equilibrium equations of the deformed configuration. Thus, the model is optimized compared to the existing one for a straight beam. To verify the effectiveness and the superiority of the established model, the theoretical method based on the model and FEM method are compared by adopting an example about the tapered beams. Finally, the theoretical method is applied in analyzing the influence of geometry and estimating a valid range of taper ratio. By the criterion of the same amount material area, the optimum taper ratio is obtained.
A scheme for the improvement of proton beam quality by the optimized dragging field from the interaction of ultraintense laser pulse with a complex double-layer target is proposed and demonstrated by one-dimensional particle-in-cell (Opic1D) simulations. The complex double-layer target consists of an overdense proton thin foil followed by a mixed hydrocarbon (CH) underdense plasma. Because of the existence of carbon ions, the dragging field in the mixed CH underdense plasma becomes stronger and flatter in the location of the proton beam than that in a pure hydrogen (H) underdense plasma. The optimized dragging field can keep trapping and accelerating protons in the mixed CH underdense target to high quality. Consequently, the energy spread of the proton beam in the mixed CH underdense plasma can be greatly reduced down to 2.6% and average energy of protons can reach to 9 GeV with circularly polarized lasers at intensities 2.74 × 1022 W/cm2.
We determined the prevalence and seasonality of infections by Fasciola of goats and bovine species (cattle and water buffalo) in Hubei and Anhui provinces of China. Faecal samples were collected at 2- to 3-month intervals from 200 goats in Hubei province and from 152 bovine species in Anhui province. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of parasites. We determined the nucleotide sequences of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of 39 Fasciola worms from Anhui province. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in goats ranged between 3.5 and 37.0%, with mean eggs per gram (EPG) ranging between 29.0 and 166.0. Prevalence and EPG exhibited downward trends over time with significant differences. The prevalence of Fasciola infection in cattle ranged between 13.3 and 46.2% (mean EPG, 36.4–100.0), and that of water buffalo ranged between 10.3 and 35.4% (mean EPG, 25.0–89.6), with a higher prevalence of infection and EPG from June to October compared with December to March. Analysis of ITS-1 and ITS-2 sequences revealed that F. hepatica and F. gigantica were present in all bovine species of Anhui province and that F. gigantica mainly infected water buffalo. This is the first demonstration of Fasciola infection in Hubei province and detection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Anhui province. The present study of Hubei province shows that mass treatment of livestock with closantel sodium injections in April and August/September controlled Fasciola infection effectively.
The present study examined sequence variability in two mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) among Oesophagostomum asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1), nad1 (pnad1) genes and the ITS (ITS1+5.8S rDNA+ITS2) rDNA were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) separately from adult O. asperum individuals and the representative amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of pcox1, pnad1 and ITS rDNA were 366 bp, 681 bp and 785 bp, respectively. The A+T contents of gene sequences were 71.5–72% for pcox1, 73.7–74.2% for pnad1 and 58–58.8% for ITS rDNA. Intra-specific sequence variations within O. asperum were 0–1.6% for pcox1, 0–1.9% for pnad1 and 0–1.7% for ITS rDNA, while inter-specific sequence differences among members of the genus Oesophagostomum were significantly higher, being 11.1–12.5%, 13.3–17.7% and 8.5–18.6% for pcox1, pnad1 and ITS rDNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses using combined sequences of pcox1 and pnad1, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony), revealed distinct groups with high statistical support. These findings demonstrated the existence of intra-specific variation in mtDNA and rDNA sequences among O. asperum isolates from goats in Hunan Province, China, and have implications for studying molecular epidemiology and population genetics of O. asperum.
This chapter provides an overview of behavioral observation, including the contexts researchers use when observing, the forms in which they record behaviors for analysis (e.g., coding), the methods available to document that different observers coded behaviors similarly (i.e., interrater agreement, an element of reliability), the necessity of establishing other forms of reliability as well as validity, and methods of analyzing behavioral observation data. Observational settings exist along a continuum of researcher influence ranging from unfettered natural environments to tightly controlled experimental situations. Behavioral observation coding systems are of two types: topographical coding systems and dimensional coding systems. The chapter discusses the most common interrater agreement statistics, as well as some useful alternatives. When analyzing behavioral data, one must consider both how the behavior is measured and how often it is measured. The chapter describes recent analytic developments for observational data that will likely be of interest to many social-psychological researchers.
We investigated the seasonality of tuberculosis (TB) in Wuhan, China, to evaluate the increased risk of disease transmission during each season and to develop an effective TB control strategy. We applied spectral analysis to the weekly prevalence data of sputum smear positive (SSP) and sputum smear negative (SSN) pulmonary TB reported from 2006 to 2010. Cases of both SSP and SSN feature 1·0- and 0·5-year periodic modes. The least squares method was used to fit curves to the two periodic modes for SSP and SSN data. The curves demonstrated dominant peaks in spring similar to cases reported previously for other locations. Notably for SSP, dominant peaks were also observed in summer. The spring peaks of SSP and SSN were explained in terms of poorly ventilated and humid rooms and vitamin D deficiency. For the summer peaks of SSP, summer influenza epidemics in Wuhan may contribute to the increase in TB prevalence.
To investigate the simultaneous occurrence of more than 1 Clostridium difficile ribotype in patients' stool samples at the time of diagnostic testing.
Stool samples submitted for diagnostic testing for the presence of toxigenic C. difficile were obtained for 102 unique patients. A total of 95 single colonies of C. difficile per stool sample were isolated on selective media, subcultured alongside negative (uninoculated) controls, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyped using capillary gel electrophoresis.
Capillary-based PCR ribotyping was successful for 9,335 C. difficile isolates, yielding a median of 93 characterized isolates per stool sample (range, 69-95). More than 1 C. difficile ribotype was present in 16 of 102 (16%) C. difficile infection (CDI) cases; 2 of the 16 mixtures were composed of at least 3 ribotypes, while the remaining 14 were composed of at least 2.
Deep sampling of patient stool samples coupled with capillary-based PCR ribotyping identified a high rate of mixed CDI cases compared with previous estimates. Studies seeking to quantify the clinical significance of particular C. difficile ribotypes should account for mixed cases of disease.
The “pad-in-a-bottle” (PIB) approach to planarization is a non-traditional chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process in which slurry containing polymer beads is used. The approach is hypothesized to be able to perform polishing by mixing polymer beads with similar chemical and mechanical properties as pad asperities into the slurry to provide force application and polishing contacts, so that a traditional CMP pad is not needed. Pad-in-a-bottle could provide predictable and controllable mechanical contacts through bead size control, which could substantially reduce process variability. Pad-in-a-bottle also has the potential to reduce the CMP consumable cost. In this work, we propose a physical model to understand the behavior of the pad-in-a-bottle approach and estimate the relationship of applied pressure and material removal rate in this variant of CMP. Two specific cases of polymer bead formation are considered in our modeling work, bead packing and bead stacking. Model prediction shows that the two bead formation cases generate distinctly different polishing mechanisms: material removal is applied pressure driven in bead packing, but contact event driven in bead stacking. The physical model suggests that in future experiments or applications of pad-in-a-bottle, a polymer bead size distribution or shape variation may be needed to achieve efficient material removal.
Antireflection with broadband and wide angle properties is important for a wide range of applications on photovoltaic cells and display. The SiOx shell layer provides a natural antireflection from air to the Si core absorption layer. In this work, we have demonstrated the random core-shell silicon nanowires with both broadband (from 400nm to 900nm) and wide angle (from normal incidence to 60°) antireflection characteristics within AM1.5 solar spectrum. The graded index structure from the randomly oriented core-shell (Air/SiOx/Si) nanowires may provide a potential avenue to realize a broadband and wide angle antireflection layer.
A zeroth order dendritic carbosilane structure, SiFA4H with four hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) functional groups attached via propyl ligand arms to a central silicon atom, has been developed as a model hydrogen-bond (HB) acid sorbent coating and candidate reference HB acid. The HB donor interaction, through the hydroxyl of the HFIP moiety, with a solute HB base can be monitored by observing the hydroxyl stretching frequency through measurements of SiFA4H FTIR spectra before and during vapor exposure. HFIP hydroxyl stretch shifts, upwards of 700 cm-1 have been observed depending on the HB base. For a range of HB bases, the resulting hydroxyl stretch shifts correlate directly with the solute HB basicity scale, “B”, developed by Abraham et al . A variety of techniques exist to measure solute HB basicity, however, the applicability to examine HB bases delivered as vapors or gases and the simplicity of the measurements described herein, with a reusable reference HB acid sorbent coating and standard FTIR spectrophotometer techniques is attractive for some applications including those with hazardous chemicals. Moreover, as an extension of this work we propose employing SiFA4H or related sorbents as molecular sensing coatings, where the semi-selective sorbent is examined by various infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques to monitor and identify hazardous chemicals, taking advantage of molecular binding phenomena which occur in the sorbent .
Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) reinforced cement composites (MWFRCs) were prepared with surfactant dispersion,
ultrasonic treatment, and subsequently high-speed shear mixing processes. These MWFRCs were characterized in the fracture
toughness property with single edge notch bend method. As found, the addition of nanotubes improves the stress-intensity
factor (KIC), critical crack mouth opening displacement (δC) and flexural strength
(σs) of the cured nanocomposite, significantly. The maximal enhancement arrives up to 56.4%,
119.4%, and 54.8%, compared to the baseline, respectively. These achievements are mainly attributed to the superior
pulling-out effect of dispersed and tough MWNT fiber upon the notched cracks. Incorporation of acid-treated MWNT balances
the σs, KIC, and δC values. Additional nanophase carbon black mixed into
the above MWFRC further increases the corresponding fracture toughness, while additional short carbon fiber shows a negative