To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
Perceptual dimensions underlying timbre and sound-source identification have received considerable scientific attention. While these scholarly insights help us in understanding the nature of sound within a multidimensional timbral space, they carry little meaning for the majority of musicians. To help address this, we conducted two experiments to establish listeners’ perceptual thresholds (PT) for changes in sound using a staircase-procedure. Unlike most timbre perception research, these changes were sonic manipulations that are common in synthesisers, audio processors and instruments familiar to musicians and producers, and occurred within continuous sounds (rather than between discrete pairs of sounds). In experiment 1, two sounds (variants of a sawtooth oscillation) both with the same fundamental frequency (F1: 80 Hz, 240 Hz or 600 Hz) were played with no intervening gap. In each trial, the two sounds’ partials differed in amplitudes or frequencies to produce a timbre change. The sonic manipulations were varied in size to detect thresholds for the perceived timbre change – listeners were instructed to indicate whether or not they perceived a change within the sound. In experiment 2, we modified stimulus presentation to introduce the factor of transition time (TT). Rather than occurring instantaneously (as in experiment 1), the timbre manipulations were introduced gradually over the course of a 100 ms or a 1000 ms TT. Results revealed that PTs were significantly affected by the manipulations in experiment 1, and additionally by TT in experiment 2. Importantly, the data revealed an interaction between the F1 and the timbre manipulations, such that there were differential effects of timbre changes on the perceptual system depending on pitch height. Musicians (n=11) showed significantly smaller PTs compared to non-musicians (n=10). However, PTs for musicians and non-musicians were highly correlated (r=.83) across different sonic manipulations, indicating similar perceptual patterns in both. We hope that by establishing PTs for commonly used timbre manipulations, we can provide musicians with a general perceptual unit, for each manipulation, that can guide music composition and assessment.
Benefit-cost analyses of education policies in low- and middle-income countries have historically used the effect of education on future wages to estimate benefits. Strong evidence also points to female education reducing both the under-five mortality rates of their children and adult mortality rates. A more complete analysis would thus add the value of mortality risk reduction to wage increases. This paper estimates how net benefits and benefit-cost ratios respond to the values used to estimate education’s mortality-reducing impact including variation in these estimates. We utilize a ‘standardized sensitivity analysis’ to generate a range of valuations of education’s impact on mortality risks. We include alternative ways of adjusting these values for income and age differences. Our analysis is for one additional year of schooling in lower-middle-income countries, incremental to the current mean. Our analysis shows a range of benefit-cost ratios ranging from 3.2 to 6.7, and net benefits ranging from $2,800 to $7,300 per student. Benefits from mortality risk reductions account for 40% to 70% of the overall benefits depending on the scenario. Thus, accounting for changes in mortality risks in addition to wage increases noticeably enhances the value of already attractive education investments.
Investing in global health and development requires making difficult choices about what policies to pursue and what level of resources to devote to different initiatives. Methods of economic evaluation are well established and widely used to quantify and compare the impacts of alternative investments. However, if not well conducted and clearly reported, these evaluations can lead to erroneous conclusions. Differences in analytic methods and assumptions can obscure important differences in impacts. To increase the comparability of these evaluations, improve their quality, and expand their use, this special issue includes a series of papers developed to support reference case guidance for benefit-cost analysis. In this introductory article, we discuss the background and context for this work, summarize the process we are following, describe the overall framework, and introduce the articles that follow.
There is strong interest in both developing and developed countries toward expanding health insurance coverage. How should the benefits, and costs, of expanded coverage be measured? While the value of reducing the financial risks that result from insurance coverage have long been recognized, there has been less attention in how best to measure such benefits. In this paper, we first provide a framework for assessing the financial value from health insurance. We focus on three distinct potential benefits: Pooling the risk of unexpected medical expenditures between healthy and sick households, redistributing resources from high- to low-income recipients and smoothing consumption over time. We then use this theoretical framework and an illustrative example to provide practical guidelines for benefit-cost analysis in capturing the full benefits (and costs) of expanding health insurance coverage. We conclude by considering other potential financial effects of broad insurance coverage, such as the ability to consolidate purchases and thus lower input prices.
A detrital assemblage of magnesian ilmenite, pyrope, chrome-diopside, rutile, and zircon has been traced to outcropping ultrabasic alkaline rocks, hitherto unknown in the Melanesian region. Analyses and descriptions of these ‘kimberlite indicator minerals’ are given. The host rocks comprise alnöite, an alnöite breccia with calcite matrix, and a magnesian ankaratrite, which are described, with chemical analyses. Emphasis is laid on the abundance of ultrabasic inclusions and xenocrysts and the replacements and transformations they have undergone. Malaita Island promises to contribute significantly to the understanding of the relations between alnöite, melilite basalts, and kimberlites.
The study of the Bom Santo Cave (central Portugal), a Neolithic cemetery, indicates a complex social, palaeoeconomic, and population scenario. With isotope, aDNA, and provenance analyses of raw materials coupled with stylistic variability of material culture items and palaeogeographical data, light is shed on the territory and social organization of a population dated to 3800–3400 cal BC, i.e. the Middle Neolithic. Results indicate an itinerant farming, segmentary society, where exogamic practices were the norm. Its lifeway may be that of the earliest megalithic builders of the region, but further research is needed to correctly evaluate the degree of this community's participation in such a phenomenon.
In this study, we used an online survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to environmental cleaning and other infection prevention strategies among environmental services workers (ESWs) at 5 hospitals. Our findings suggest that ESWs could benefit from additional education and feedback as well as new strategies to address workflow challenges.
Childhood maltreatment and a family history of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) are each associated with social-emotional dysfunction in childhood. Both are also strong risk factors for adult SSDs, and social-emotional dysfunction in childhood may be an antecedent of these disorders. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine the independent and moderating effects of maltreatment and parental SSDs on early childhood social-emotional functioning.
The New South Wales Child Development Study combines intergenerational multi-agency data using record linkage methods. Multiple measures of social-emotional functioning (social competency, prosocial/helping behaviour, anxious/fearful behaviour; aggressive behaviour, and hyperactivity/inattention) on 69 116 kindergarten children (age ~5 years) were linked with government records of child maltreatment and parental presentations to health services for SSD. Multivariable analyses investigated the association between maltreatment and social-emotional functioning, adjusting for demographic variables and parental SSD history, in the population sample and in sub-cohorts exposed and not exposed to parental SSD history. We also examined the association of parental SSD history and social-emotional functioning, adjusting for demographic variables and maltreatment.
Medium-sized associations were identified between maltreatment and poor social competency, aggressive behaviour and hyperactivity/inattention; small associations were revealed between maltreatment and poor prosocial/helping and anxious/fearful behaviours. These associations did not differ greatly when adjusted for parental SSD, and were greater in magnitude among children with no history of parental SSD. Small associations between parental SSD and poor social-emotional functioning remained after adjusting for demographic variables and maltreatment.
Childhood maltreatment and history of parental SSD are associated independently with poor early childhood social-emotional functioning, with the impact of exposure to maltreatment on social-emotional functioning in early childhood of greater magnitude than that observed for parental SSDs. The impact of maltreatment was reduced in the context of parental SSDs. The influence of parental SSDs on later outcomes of maltreated children may become more apparent during adolescence and young adulthood when overt symptoms of SSD are likely to emerge. Early intervention to strengthen childhood social-emotional functioning might mitigate the impact of maltreatment, and potentially also avert future psychopathology.
Coping skills provide a resource for tackling stress in everyday situations, including those relating to parenting. The aim of this article is to establish whether parents who experienced a 10-hour universal social emotional parenting program — Families Coping (FC) — benefit through increased productive coping strategies, decreased nonproductive coping strategies, and increased parent wellbeing, within a positive parenting framework. It is also of interest to see whether gender and/or partner attendance makes a difference in program outcomes such as coping styles and wellbeing. The data set combined two groups of parents (N = 23) of preschool-aged children from an early learning centre in inner-metropolitan Melbourne in 2013 and 2014 who undertook the FC parenting program. A mixed methods design was employed, where parents completed pre- and post-program questionnaires on coping and wellbeing. Results were considered with respect to gender and partner attendance. A one-way repeated-measures multiple analysis of variance (RM-MANOVA) showed a significant increase in one productive parenting style (Dealing with the Problem), a significant decrease in nonproductive parent coping, and a significant increase in parent wellbeing. Comparison of results between gender and partner attendance groups showed minimal differences in program effectiveness. Qualitative data mostly confirmed the key findings.
Mesotrione, a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide, is labeled for PRE and POST crabgrass control. It has enhanced efficacy on smooth and large crabgrass when applied in conjunction with soil-applied nitrogen (N). The objectives of this study, using crabgrass as the weed species, were to (1) determine the influence of N rate and tissue N concentration on mesotrione activity, (2) determine the influence of N source on mesotrione activity, and (3) determine the influence of N application timing on mesotrione activity. Large crabgrass plants that received 12 kg N ha−1 or more before mesotrione application had more bleached and necrotic leaves compared with plants that received 0 kg N ha−1 7 d after treatment (DAT) in the greenhouse. Although N application rates as high as 98 kg N ha−1 were tested, 90% leaf bleaching and necrosis were observed with rates of 8.9 or 10.1 kg N ha−1 in Tennessee and Indiana, respectively. Nitrogen concentration in large crabgrass leaf and stem tissue on the day of the mesotrione application was closely related to the bleaching and necrosis symptoms observed 7 DAT. Although N rate influenced mesotrione activity, N source did not. Nitrogen application timing was also important, with N applications 3, 1, and 0 d before a mesotrione application having the highest percentage of bleached and necrotic leaves in greenhouse experiments. Both greenhouse and field trials support the finding that N applications in proximity to the mesotrione application enhance herbicide activity. Thus, practitioners can pair N and POST mesotrione applications together or in proximity to enhance crabgrass control.
The link between psychotic disorders and violent offending is well established; knowledge about risk of post-illness-onset offending across the full spectrum of psychiatric disorders is lacking. We aimed to compare rates of any offending and violent offending committed after the onset of illness, according to diagnostic group, with population controls.
A 25% random sample of the Danish population (n = 521 340) was followed from their 15th birthday until offending occurred. Mental health status was considered as a time-varying exposure in a Poisson regression model used to examine the duration from service contact to the offence.
Males with any psychiatric contact had an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 2.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.80–3.02] for any offending; 4.18 (95% CI 3.99–4.38) for violent offending. Associations were stronger for women (IRR 4.17, 95% CI 3.95–4.40 for any offending; 8.02, 95% CI 7.20–8.94 for violent offending). Risk was similar across diagnostic groups for any offending in males, while variation between diagnostic groups was seen for male violent and female offending, both any and violent.
Risk of offending, particularly violent offending, was elevated across a range of mental disorders following first contact with mental health services. The extent of variation in strength of effect across diagnoses differed by gender.
X-ray beam-induced damage in nanoscale metal islands was investigated. Monolayer-high Ni islands were prepared on a Cu(111) substrate. High brilliance X-rays with photon energies between 8.45 and 8.85 keV illuminated the sample for about 11 hours. In order to track changes in the morphology of the islands, the synchrotron X-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM) technique was utilized. The result shows that X-ray illumination onto Ni islands does not induce noticeable damage. The study demonstrates that local beam-induced changes can be studied using SX-STM.
The use of nightsoil, a Victorian euphemism for human faeces and urine, has for some time been recognized as an important feature of Chinese and Japanese agricultural practice. The importance of the work of nightsoil men and women in early modern and modern cities in other parts of the world has not been the subject of much attention, however, nor has the significance of the differential use of human waste. This article explores the varied ways in which nightsoil men and women organized their work in cities around the world in the period from 1500 to 1900. It also examines the ways in which East Asian and South Asian conservancy systems and the consequent development of markets in human manure contributed materially to Asian advantages in agriculture, sanitation, and textile production. European urban authorities, reformers, and scientists initially responded to this challenge with similar efforts to conserve human waste and use it in farming, but these efforts remained small-scale, and in the nineteenth century Europeans turned to chemically synthesized fertilizers.
Research studies evaluated effects of the auxin transport inhibitor, diflufenzopyr, on the biokinetics and efficacy of aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl ester (AMCP-ME) applications to black nightshade and large crabgrass. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of 14C-AMCP-ME was quantified with and without diflufenzopyr (35 g ai ha−1). Diflufenzopyr had minimal effects on translocation of radioactivity in either species. Accumulation of radioactivity in aboveground plant sections of black nightshade was greater than or equal to that in large crabgrass by 72 h after treatment (HAT). In both species, metabolism of 14C-AMCP-ME was rapid, as 60 to 78% of the extracted radioactivity was the free acid metabolite 8 HAT. In the greenhouse, black nightshade and large crabgrass were treated with AMCP-ME (9, 18, and 35 g ai ha−1) alone and in combination with diflufenzopyr (35 g ha−1). Mixtures of AMCP-ME plus diflufenzopyr did not increase large crabgrass control compared with AMCP-ME alone at any time. Diflufenzopyr (35 g ha−1) increased black nightshade control with AMCP-ME (18 and 35 g ha−1) 7 d after treatment (DAT). However, this increase in control was not observed 14 or 28 DAT. All treatments containing AMCP-ME controlled large crabgrass 70 to 79% 28 DAT compared with > 93% for black nightshade at the same time point.
Prodiamine is a mitotic inhibiting herbicide regularly used to control annual bluegrass PRE. A population of annual bluegrass not controlled by prodiamine at 1,120 g a.i. ha−1 was identified on a golf course in Alcoa, TN, in 2012. A whole-plant hydroponics bioassay was used to screen this biotype for prodiamine resistance (PR) compared with a known susceptible population (SS). Multitiller (i.e., > 4 tillers) PR and SS annual bluegrass plants were established in hydroponic culture and exposed to 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.10, 1.0, and 10.0 mM prodiamine. Exposure to prodiamine at 0.001 mM reduced root growth of the SS biotype to 26% of the nontreated check (i.e., 0 mM prodiamine) but had no effect on the PR biotype. When exposed to 10 mM prodiamine, root growth of the PR biotype was reduced to 24% of the nontreated check compared with 9% for the SS biotype. I50 values for the PR and SS biotypes were 0.04 and 2.8 × 10−6 mM prodiamine, respectively. The PR biotype measured lower in plant height and leaf width than the SS population. In field trials, prodiamine at 560, 840, 1,120, and 1,400 g ha−1 only controlled the PR biotype 0 to 22%. PRE applications of the cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor indaziflam at 35, 52.5, and 70 g a.i. ha−1 controlled this PR biotype 70 to 97%. This marks the second instance of annual bluegrass developing resistance to prodiamine in Tennessee during the past 5 yr. Future research should evaluate indaziflam efficacy for control of other prodiamine-resistant biotypes of annual bluegrass as well as annual bluegrass biotypes resistant to herbicidal inhibitors of 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase, acetolactate synthase, and photosystem II.