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We studied neuroinflammation in individuals with late-life, depression, as a
risk factor for dementia, using [11C]PK11195 positron emission
tomography (PET). Five older participants with major depression and 13
controls underwent PET and multimodal 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),
with blood taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP). We found significantly
higher CRP levels in those with late-life depression and raised
[11C]PK11195 binding compared with controls in brain regions
associated with depression, including subgenual anterior cingulate cortex,
and significant hippocampal subfield atrophy in cornu ammonis 1 and
subiculum. Our findings suggest neuroinflammation requires further
investigation in late-life depression, both as a possible aetiological
factor and a potential therapeutic target.
This study evaluated whether primary tumour characteristics are associated with specific features of metastatic lymph nodes in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients.
A retrospective review of 411 patients with pathologically diagnosed cervical lymph node metastasis was conducted.
A metastatic lymph node focus size of at least 2 mm was independently associated with a primary tumour size of at least 1 cm (hazard ratio 1.962) and with male sex (hazard ratio 1.947). A number of at least five lymph node metastases was independently associated with a primary tumour size of at least 1 cm (hazard ratio 2.863), extrathyroidal extension (hazard ratio 1.737) and male sex (hazard ratio 1.689). Extranodal extension was independently associated with a primary tumour size of at least 1 cm (hazard ratio 2.288), extrathyroidal extension (2.201) and male sex (hazard ratio 1.733).
Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma characteristics are related to the pathological features of lymph node metastases.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n = 27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
A census of the Critically Endangered Bengal Florican Houbaropsis bengalensis was conducted between March and May 2012 on and surrounding the Tonle Sap floodplain in Cambodia, which supports the last extant population of the Indochinese subspecies blandini. We found a decline in the number of displaying males of 44–64% since a comparable estimate from the same sites in 2005 to 2007. The estimated population, including five individuals at one previously unsurveyed site, is now 216 (95% CI 156–275) displaying males, plus potential non-displaying males and an unknown number of females. If numbers continue to be lost at a similar rate, it is possible that blandini would become extinct within 10 years. Although the population faces multiple threats, this critical situation has primarily been caused by the recent, rapid conversion of the florican’s grassland habitat to intensive, industrial-scale, irrigated rice cultivation. To protect the Bengal Florican from extinction in South East Asia, existing Bengal Florican Conservation Areas (BFCAs) need expansion and improvements, including strengthened legal status by prime ministerial sub-decree and better demarcation, patrolling and management. As priorities, both irrigated rice and scrub encroachment within the BFCAs needs to be reversed, local communities better supported, and land outside the BFCAs monitored and strategically managed for florican conservation. Where possible, further BFCAs need to be established. Land purchase may also be an effective conservation measure; leasing land earmarked for cultivation would be cheaper, but less secure.
The symptoms of major depression (MD) are clinically diverse. Do they form coherent factors that might clarify the underlying nature of this important psychiatric syndrome?
Symptoms at lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ⩾30 years with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatoryfactor analysis (CFA) were performed in Mplus in random split-half samples.
The preliminary EFA results were consistently supported by the findings from CFA. Analyses of the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria revealed two factors loading on: (i) general depressive symptoms; and (ii) guilt/suicidal ideation. Examining 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria revealed three factors reflecting: (i) weight/appetite disturbance; (ii) general depressive symptoms; and (iii) sleep disturbance. Using all symptoms (n = 27), we identified five factors that reflected: (i) weight/appetite symptoms; (ii) general retarded depressive symptoms; (iii) atypical vegetative symptoms; (iv) suicidality/hopelessness; and (v) symptoms of agitation and anxiety.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several underlying correlated symptom dimensions. In addition to a general depressive symptom factor, a complete picture must include factors reflecting typical/atypical vegetative symptoms, cognitive symptoms (hopelessness/suicidal ideation), and an agitated symptom factor characterized by anxiety, guilt, helplessness and irritability. Prior cross-cultural studies, factor analyses of MD in Western populations and empirical findings in this sample showing risk factor profiles similar to those seen in Western populations suggest that our results are likely to be broadly representative of the human depressive syndrome.
Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied.
The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness were assessed during their lifetime worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent MD. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression.
Compared to patients who did not endorse the cognitive trio, those who did had a greater number of DSM-IV A criteria, more individual depressive symptoms, an earlier age at onset, a greater number of episodes, and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for melancholia, postnatal depression, dysthymia and anxiety disorders. Hopelessness was highly related to all the suicidal symptomatology, with ORs ranging from 5.92 to 6.51. Neuroticism, stressful life events (SLEs) and a protective parental rearing style were associated with these cognitive symptoms.
During the worst episode of MD in Han Chinese women, the endorsement of the cognitive trio was associated with a worse course of depression and an increased risk of suicide. Individuals with high levels of neuroticism, many SLEs and high parental protectiveness were at increased risk for these cognitive depressive symptoms. As in Western populations, symptoms of the cognitive trio appear to play a central role in the psychopathology of MD in Chinese women.
Δ14C values of leaves of deciduous trees provide a means to map the regional-scale fossil fuel ratio in the atmosphere. We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, a deciduous tree) leaf samples from across Korea in the month of July in both 2010 and 2011 to obtain the regional distribution of Δ14C. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The average of the Δ14C values from clean air sites in Korea in 2011 measured slightly lower than the average of Δ14C values in 2010. Distribution maps of Δ14C of 2011 and 2010 in Korea were made based on a series of Δ14C values of ginkgo leaf samples from Korea using the Geostatistical and Spatial analyst tools in ESRI's ArcMap software. The distribution maps of Δ14C showed that Δ14C values in the western part of Korea are lower than those in the eastern part of Korea. This is because the western part of Korea is densely populated and contains many industrial complexes, and also because westerly winds from China, containing CO2 from fossil fuel use, blow into Korea. We compared the distribution maps of 2010 and 2011 and tried to find traces of the Fukushima power plant accident in Japan.
Vitamin A deficiency causes impaired vision and blindness in millions of children around the world. Previous studies in zebrafish have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the acid form of vitamin A, plays a vital role in early eye development. The objective of this study was to describe the effects of early RA deficiency by treating zebrafish with diethylaminobenzaldehyde (DEAB), a potent inhibitor of the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) that converts retinal to RA. Zebrafish embryos were treated for 2 h beginning at 9 h postfertilization. Gross morphology and retinal development were examined at regular intervals for 5 days after treatment. The optokinetic reflex (OKR) test, visual background adaptation (VBA) test, and the electroretinogram (ERG) were performed to assess visual function and behavior. Early treatment of zebrafish embryos with 100 μM DEAB (9 h) resulted in reduced eye size, and this microphthalmia persisted through larval development. Retinal histology revealed that DEAB eyes had significant developmental abnormalities but had relatively normal retinal lamination by 5.5 days postfertilization. However, the fish showed neither an OKR nor a VBA response. Further, the retina did not respond to light as measured by the ERG. We conclude that early deficiency of RA during eye development causes microphthalmia as well as other visual defects, and that timing of the RA deficiency is critical to the developmental outcome.
“Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) waves” are large-scale wavelike transients often associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In this Letter, we present a possible detection of a fast-mode EUV wave associated with a mini-CME observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. On 2010 December 1, a small-scale EUV wave erupted near the disk center associated with a mini-CME, which showed all the low corona manifestations of a typical CME. The CME was triggered by the eruption of a mini-filament, with a typical length of about 30′′. Although the eruption was tiny, the wave had the appearance of an almost semicircular front and propagated at a uniform velocity of 220−250km s-1 with very little angular dependence. The CME lateral expansion was asymmetric with an inclination toward north, and the southern footprints of the CME loops hardly shifted. The lateral expansion resulted in deep long-duration dimmings, showing the CME extent. Our analysis confirms that the small-scale EUV wave is a true wave, interpreted as the fast-mode wave.
Graphene and its derivatives have attracted much attention for potential applications in biological sensing systems because of their unique 2D structural, surface and electronic properties. Reports on graphene - based electrochemical impedance biosensors are emerging rapidly. In this research, we have explored the RF (radio frequency) impedance –based sensing feasibility of graphene and graphene derivative materials on the coplanar waveguide (CPW) device. The transmission line based sensing experiments demonstrated clear and significant blueshifts of resonance frequencies and decrease of the resistance at and beyond resonance frequencies after graphene oxide is absorbed with DNA. The results may lead to an alternative approach in developing graphene based chemical and biosensors.
The Cu-based film catalysts with various additive metals have been successfully prepared by the electroless plating on ZnO nanorods/stainless steel substrates. The microstructure features of the Cu-based films are highly porous and composed of plate-type grains. The addition of zirconium, aluminum, and iron into Cu-based film catalyst can improve the activity and the stability of the film catalysts. The catalytic durability of the Cu-based film catalysts has also been improved by addition of Zr, Al, and Fe into Cu-based films. This is attributed to the formation of the stable ZrO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles with good dispersion in the films.
This triennium began with an action to re-create the Terms of Reference for the Working Group Global VLBI (WG-GV). These had been lost over the years since the Group was established in 1990. Fortunately, the personal archive of one long-term member yielded a copy of the original memorandum by R. D. Ekers, which was found to coincide quite well with current practice and areas of interest. New Terms of Reference, based on modern conditions, were drafted and accepted by both IAU and URSI.
Photonic crystal surfaces represent a class of resonant optical structures that are capable of supporting high intensity electromagnetic standing waves with near-field and far-field properties that can be exploited for high sensitivity detection of biomolecules and cells. While modulation of the resonant wavelength of a photonic crystal by the dielectric permittivity of adsorbed biomaterials enables label-free detection, the resonance can also be tuned to coincide with the excitation wavelength of common fluorescent tags - including organic molecules and semiconductor quantum dots. Photonic crystals are also capable of efficiently channeling fluorescent emission into a preferred direction for enhanced extraction efficiency. Photonic crystals can be designed to support multiple resonant modes that can perform label free detection, enhanced fluorescence excitation, and enhanced fluorescence extraction simultaneously on the same device. Because photonic crystal surfaces may be inexpensively produced over large surface areas by nanoreplica molding processes, they can be incorporated into disposable labware for applications such as pharmaceutical high throughput screening. In this talk, the optical properties of surface photonic crystals will be reviewed and several applications will be described, including results from screening a 200,000-member chemical compound library for inhibitors of protein-DNA interactions, gene expression microarrays, and high sensitivity of protein biomarkers.
Trilayer concentric metallic-piezoelectric-metallic microtubes are fabricated by infiltrating porous Si templates with sol precursors. LaNiO3 (LNO) is used as the inner and outer electrode material and PbZrTiO3 (PZT) is the middle piezoelectric layer. Structure of the microtubes is characterized in details using scanning and transmission electron microscopy which are equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for elemental mapping. The hysteresis of a trilayered thin film structure of LNO-PZT-LNO is shown. This trilayered tubes might find applications in inkjet printing.