Due to unplanned maintenance of the back-end systems supporting article purchase on Cambridge Core, we have taken the decision to temporarily suspend article purchase for the foreseeable future. We apologise for any inconvenience caused whilst we work with the relevant teams to restore this service.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter examines the psychology of women in entrepreneurship and reviews research from Western and non-Western perspectives. As more women are attracted to engaging in entrepreneurship worldwide, understanding this phenomenon would be of academic and practical relevance. In particular, we focus on discussing some of the stereotypes and characteristics associated with entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial intentions and motivations, and the challenges of gathering financial resources. In the final part of the chapter, we propose several future research directions. There are numerous opportunities to increase our knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship from a psychological and cross-cultural perspective.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common childhood rheumatologic disease childhood and a cause of pain and potential disability. JIA has a strong genetic component and no known cure. The goal of this study is to evaluate allele-dependent effects of a novel JIA risk variant at 1q24.3. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: JIA patients meeting criteria for the two most common disease subtypes (oligoarticular and RF neg polyarthritis) were genotyped using the Immunochip, an Illumina array with dense coverage of the HLA region and 186 other loci previously reported in autoimmune diseases. Phase I association findings (Hinks, 2013) and Phase II analysis (unpublished) of an expanded cohort (4,271 JIA and 14,390 controls) identified new risk loci, including rs78037977 at 1q24.3. We prioritized rs78037977 and predicted possible impacted mechanisms based on Bayesian predictions of attributable risk, the surrounding chromatin landscape, and transcription factor binding data. A luciferase reporter assay was used to assess allele-dependent enhancer activity. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: rs78037977 is located between FASLG and TNFSF18 at chromosome 1q24.3 is associated with JIA (p = 6.3x10−09), and explains 94% of the posterior probability at this locus; no other SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.6). The chromatin landscape around rs78037977 contains H3K4Me1 and H3K27Ac marks, which are indicative of enhancer activity. Further, >160 transcription factors have chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) peaks overlapping rs78037977 in various cellular contexts. In luciferase reporter assays, the region around rs78037977 containing the reference A allele had ~2-fold increased enhancer activity compared to the non-reference allele. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work provides in vitro evidence to support allele-dependent enhancer activity of a novel JIA-risk variant at 1q24.3. Our ongoing work investigates the effect of the DNA-containing region of rs78037977 on gene expression and differential transcription factor binding at rs78037977.
Morning coffee is a common remedy following disrupted sleep yet each factor can independently impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. Remarkably, the combined effects of sleep fragmentation and coffee on glucose control upon waking per se have never been investigated.
In a randomised cross-over design, 29 adults (Mean ± SD; age: 21 ± 1 years, BMI: 24.4 ± 3.3 kg·m-2) underwent three oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). One following a habitual night of sleep (Control; in bed, lights-off trying to sleep ~2300-0700 h) the others following a night of sleep fragmentation (as Control but waking hourly for 5 min), once with and once without morning coffee ~1 h after waking (~300 mg caffeine as black coffee 30 min prior to OGTT).
Peak plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were unaffected by sleep quality but were higher following coffee consumption (Mean [normalised confidence interval] for Control, Fragmented, and Fragmented+Coffee, respectively; Glucose: 8.20 [7.93-8.47] mmol∙L-1versus 8.23 [7.96-8.50] mmol∙L-1versus 8.96 [8.70-9.22] mmol.L-1; Insulin: 265 [247-283] pmol∙L-1; and 235 [218-253] pmol∙L-1; and 310 [284-337] pmol∙L-1). Likewise, iAUC for plasma glucose was higher in the Fragmented+Coffee trial compared to Fragmented.
Whilst sleep fragmentation did not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses to morning glucose ingestion, if a strong caffeinated coffee is consumed then a reduction in glucose tolerance can be expected.
Reducing dietary CP content is an effective approach to reduce animal nitrogen excretion and save protein feed resources. However, it is not clear how reducing dietary CP content affects the nutrient digestion and absorption in the gut of ruminants, therefore it is difficult to accurately determine how much reduction in dietary CP content is appropriate. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of reduced dietary CP content on N balance, intestinal nutrient digestion and absorption, and rumen microbiota in growing goats. To determine N balance, 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to one of three diets: 13.0% (control), 11.5% and 10.0% CP. Another 18 growing wether goats (25.0 ± 0.5 kg) were surgically fitted with ruminal, proximate duodenal, and terminal ileal fistulae and were randomly assigned to one of the three diets to investigate intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption and rumen microbiota. The results showed that fecal and urinary N excretion of goats fed diets containing 11.5% and 10.0% CP were lower than those of goats fed the control diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, N retention was decreased and apparent N digestibility in the entire gastrointestinal tract was increased in goats fed the 10% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the duodenal flow of lysine, tryptophan and phenylalanine was decreased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, leucine, glutamic acid, tyrosine, essential AAs (EAAs) and total AAs (TAAs) was decreased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the apparent absorption of TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 11.5% CP diet (P < 0.05) and that of isoleucine, serine, cysteine, EAAs, non-essential AAs, and TAAs in the small intestine was increased in goats fed the 10.0% CP diet (P < 0.05). When compared with goats fed the control diet, the relative richness of Bacteroidetes and Fibrobacteres was increased and that of Proteobacteria and Synergistetes was decreased in the rumen of goats fed a diet with 10.0% CP. In conclusion, reducing dietary CP content reduced N excretion and increased nutrient utilization by improving rumen fermentation, enhancing nutrient digestion and absorption, and altering rumen microbiota in growing goats.
Ovarian follicle selection is a natural biological process in the pre-ovulatory hierarchy in birds that drives growing follicles to be selected within the ovulatory cycle. Follicle selection in birds is strictly regulated, involving signaling pathways mediated by dietary nutrients, gonadotrophic hormones and paracrine factors. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that dietary Ca may participate in regulating follicle selection in laying ducks through activating the signaling pathway of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), possibly mediated by gonadotrophic hormones. Female ducks at 22 weeks of age were initially fed one of two Ca-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% Ca) or a Ca-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% Ca) for 67 days (depletion period), then all birds were fed the Ca-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the Ca-adequate control, ducks fed 0.38% Ca during the depletion period had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) numbers of hierarchical follicles and total ovarian weight, which were accompanied by reduced egg production. Plasma concentration of FSH was decreased by the diet containing 1.8% Ca but not by that containing 0.38%. The ovarian content of cAMP was increased with the two Ca-deficient diets, and phosphorylation of PKA and ERK1/2 was increased with 0.38% dietary Ca. Transcripts of ovarian estradiol receptor 2 and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) were reduced in the ducks fed the two Ca-deficient diets (P < 0.05), while those of the ovarian follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) were decreased in the ducks fed 0.38% Ca. The transcript abundance of ovary gap junction proteins, A1 and A4, was reduced with the Ca-deficient diets (P < 0.05). The down-regulation of gene expression of gap junction proteins and hormone receptors, the increased cAMP content and the suppressed hierarchical follicle numbers were reversed by repletion of dietary Ca. These results indicate that dietary Ca deficiency negatively affects follicle selection of laying ducks, independent of FSH, but probably by activating cAMP/PKA/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
White matter abnormalities have been repeatedly reported in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) diseases from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies respectively, while the empirical evidences about the diagnostic specificity of white matter abnormalities in these disorders are still limited.
25 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 18 patients with bipolar mania were recruited from the in-patient unit of the Mental Health Centre, West China Hospital, China.
Patients were diagnosed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Version IV (DSM- IV). 30 healthy controls were recruited from the community by means of leaflets distributed throughout Chengdu city.
This study sought to investigate the alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter throughout the entire brain of patients from Chengdu, China with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to assess white matter integrity in patients with paranoid schizophrenia and bipolar mania, as well as in normal controls. The differences in FA were measured by use of voxel-based analysis.
Reduced FA was found in the left posterior corona radiate (PCR) in patients with bipolar mania and paranoid schizophrenia compared to the controls. Patients with bipolar mania also showed a significant reduction in FA in right posterior corona radiate and in right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR).
Common abnormalities in the left PCR might imply an overlap in white matter pathology of both diseases and might be related to the shared risk factors for both disorders.
Beef cattle are often fed high-concentrate diet (HCD) to achieve high growth rate. However, HCD feeding is strongly associated with metabolic disorders. Mild acid treatment of grains in HCD with 1% hydrochloric acid (HA) followed by neutralization with sodium bicarbonate (SB) might modify rumen fermentation patterns and microbiota, thereby decreasing the negative effects of HCD. This study was thus aimed to investigate the effects of treatment of corn with 1% HA and subsequent neutralization with SB on rumen fermentation and microbiota, inflammatory response and growth performance in beef cattle fed HCD. Eighteen beef cattle were randomly allocated to three groups and each group was fed different diets: low-concentrate diet (LCD) (concentrate : forage = 40 : 60), HCD (concentrate : forage = 60 : 40) or HCD based on treated corn (HCDT) with the same concentrate to forage ratio as the HCD. The corn in the HCDT was steeped in 1% HA (wt/wt) for 48 h and neutralized with SB after HA treatment. The animal trial lasted for 42 days with an adaptation period of 7 days. At the end of the trial, rumen fluid samples were collected for measuring ruminal pH values, short-chain fatty acids, endotoxin (or lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and bacterial microbiota. Plasma samples were collected at the end of the trial to determine the concentrations of plasma LPS, proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APPs). The results showed that compared with the LCD, feeding the HCD had better growth performance due to a shift in the ruminal fermentation pattern from acetate towards propionate, butyrate and valerate. However, the HCD decreased ruminal pH and increased ruminal LPS release and the concentrations of plasma proinflammatory cytokines and APPs. Furthermore, feeding the HCD reduced bacterial richness and diversity in the rumen. Treatment of corn increased resistant starch (RS) content. Compared with the HCD, feeding the HCDT reduced ruminal LPS and improved ruminal bacterial microbiota, resulting in decreased inflammation and improved growth performance. In conclusion, although the HCD had better growth performance than the LCD, feeding the HCD promoted the pH reduction and the LPS release in the rumen, disturbed the ruminal bacterial stability and increased inflammatory response. Treatment of corn with HA in combination with subsequent SB neutralization increased the RS content and helped counter the negative effects of feeding HCD to beef steers.
Although the deviations of brain volume deficits in sporadic and familial first-episode schizophrenia patients (FEP) had been presented, the difference of brain asymmetries remained unidentified.
To assess the potential differences of volumetric asymmetries of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) between groups.
To find out the different injury alteration of sporadic FEP and familial FEP.
42 sporadic and 30 familiar drug-naïve FEP with and 72 matched normal controls (NC) were recruited. Participants were assessed with neuropsychological tests and scanned by a 3.0T MRI to obtain T1-weighted and DTI images. Lateralization distribution maps of GM and WM volume were generated by employing optimized voxel-based morphometry. The asymmetries were analyzed by comparing calculating Laterality Index (LI) voxel by voxel.
All three groups showed similar overall brain torque. Familiar FEP have more regional extensive GM asymmetry brain lesions compared to sporadic FEP. There was no shared regional lesion between two groups. LIGM and LIWM in right superior temporal were negatively correlated. Significant negative correlations were also found between LIGM of left superior parietal lobule and LIWM of right superior parietal lobule, and between LIGM of right inferior parietal lobule and LIWM of left inferior parietal lobule. The asymmetry in distinct brain regions were related to cognitive deficits especially in the domains of language and memory.
The two patient groups had different alteration in injuries of brain asymmetry. Familiar FEP has more GM extensive asymmetry brain region, which may correlate with their high genetic burdens.
Depression is a common mental disorder that substantially impairs a client's functioning. the aim of this study is to examine the predictive factors of quality of life (QOL) for depression from longitudinal perspectives. 237 outpatients with depression were recruited in the study. They were from a psychiatric outpatient clinic in northern Taiwan. All subjects were tested on the baseline and followed up twice during 3-year period. the average age of subjects was 47.1 years. Most subjects were female, married and lived with their spouses.Seventy subjects participated in both follow ups (T2 and T3). there were no significant differences on the demographic characteristics at T1 between the respondents (N = 70) and non-respondents (N = 167) except for gender. the subjects were tested on the WHOQOL-BREF-Taiwan version, occupational self assessment, mastery, social support and Center of Epidemiology Study-Depression Scale (CESD). the data were analyzed by mixed effect model using SAS computer program.The severity of depression could predict overall QOL, overall health and 13 items of QOL. the type of antidepressants had significant impact on the subjects’ QOL in 10 items. the occupational competence and sense of mastery predicted 13 items (50%) and 14 items (53.8%), respectively.In order to advance the treatment outcomes, the professionals should pay more attention on the enhancement of the sense of competence and mastery. We suggested that treatments should target at improving adaptive skills, lifestyle, and occupational competence.
The pharmacological properties of betel nut which is consumed in immense quantities in the East as a cognitive enhancer. There was no evidence to prove the cognitive enhancement effect of chewing bet nut.
We tried to demonstrated that chewing betel nut enhanced cognitive performance, mainly attention, especially when they felt fatigue.
First, we demonstrated the fatigue effect induced by repeated continuous performance attention tests. Second, we tested the cognitive enhancement effect induced by betel nut.
Experiment 1, thirty-four volunteers, naive to betel nut, performed a continuous performance test three times without chewing anything before-and-during the test. Experiment 2, seventeen subjects who are used to chew betel nut performed the same tests. During the second and third session, they were given two pieces of gums or five piece of betel nut to chew. The sequence of chewing were counterbalanced.
In experiment 1, omission error rate was significantly different between section 1 and 3. Commission error was significantly different between section 1 and 2, 3 (Figure 1). In experiment 2, omission error rate was significantly different between baseline and section of chewing betel nut (Figure 2). Commission error rate had no difference between three sections. In both experiments, reaction time of different sections had no difference.
[Figue 1. The error rate of different types errors.]
Chewing betel nut could reverse the increase of omission error rate but chewing gum could not improve it. Either chewing betel nut or gum improved commission error rate. This study demonstrate the cognitive enhancement effect of chewing betel nut.
Previously, we reported the clinical efficacy of MPH-LA in adult ADHD evaluated in a 40-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre core study [comprising of dose confirmation (9-week), real-life dose optimisation (5-week) and maintenance of effect phases (6- month)] (Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2013;(5):219–220). Here, we report the long-term efficacy from the 26-week extension phase of the same study.
During the extension phase, patients initiated treatment with MPH-LA 20 mg/day (oral, once daily capsules); uptitrated to optimal dose of 40, 60 or 80 mg/day in increments of 20 mg/week. Change in DSM-IV ADHD rating scale (RS) and SDS total scores at the end of study, were evaluated from the baseline of maintenance of effect phase of the core study and the baseline of extension phase.
At the end of the extension phase, the mean change in DSM-IV ADHD RS and SDS total scores from baseline of the maintenance of effect phase was −0.9 and −1.4 points respectively; and from baseline of extension phase was −7.2 and −4.8 respectively (Table). No new or unexpected safety concerns were observed during the extension phase.
MPH-LA continued to maintain clinical efficacy in adult ADHD patients over long-term.
Table DSM-IV ADHD RS, SDS total scores and change from baseline at the end of extension phase
Recent epidemiology studies have reported the prevalence of adult ADHD to be approximately 4%, however approved treatments are limited.
Primary objectives were to confirm the clinically-effective and safe dosage range of MPH-LA in adults with ADHD and evaluate the 6-month maintenance of effect.
Treatment Period (TP) 1: Patients were randomized to double-blind placebo, MPH-LA 40, 60, or 80 mg/day for 9- weeks (3-week titration, 6-week fixed-dose) to evaluate change in DSM-IV ADHD-RS and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score in TP1. TP2: 5-week titration to individual optimal dose. TP3: Patients were randomized to their optimal dose or placebo for 6-months double-blind withdrawal period to evaluate percentage of treatment failures during TP3.
Improvement from baseline in total score on the DSM-IV ADHD-RS and SDS was significantly greater than placebo for all MPH-LA dose levels (table). Patients treated with MPH-LA had significantly lower treatment failure rates (21.34%) compared to placebo in TP3 (49.6%; odds-ratio (95%CI=0.3 (0.2, 0.4); p< 0.0001). The safety results were consistent with the established safety profile for MPH-LA.
[Improvement by week 9: DSM-IV ADHD-RS and SDS].
N=Full Analysis Set for TP1 (All randomized patients receiving one dose of study drug in TP1)
MPH-LA administered at 40-80mg/day demonstrated superior ADHD symptom control and reduction in functional impairment compared to placebo and demonstrated maintenance of effect over 6 months. No unexpected adverse events were observed.
Metabolic abnormality is common among schizophrenia patients. Some metabolic traits were found associated with subgroups of schizophrenia patients.
We examined a possible relationship between metabolic abnormality and psychosis profile in schizophrenia patients.
Three hundred and seventy-two chronic schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for more than 2 years were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A set of metabolic traits was measured at scheduled checkpoints between October 2004 and September 2006.
Multiple regressions adjusted for sex showed negative correlations between body mass index (BMI) and total score and all subscales; triglycerides (TG) was negatively correlated with total score and negative syndrome, while HDLC was positively correlated with negative syndrome. When sex interaction was concerned, total score was negatively correlated with BMI but not with others; negative syndrome was negatively correlated with BMI and positively with HDLC. No metabolic traits were correlated with positive syndrome or general psychopathology.
Loss of body weight is a serious health problem in schizophrenia patients with severe psychosis syndrome, especially the negative syndrome. Schizophrenia patients with severe negative syndrome may have a distinct lipid pathophysiology in comparison with those who were less severe in the domain.
Serotonin transporter (SERT) and dopamine transporter (DAT) levels differ in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who are in a depressed state in comparison with healthy controls. In addition, a family history of depression is a potent risk factor for developing depression, and inherited vulnerability to serotonergic and dopaminergic dysfunction is suspected in this. The aim of this study was to examine the availabilities of midbrain SERT and striatal DAT in healthy subjects with and without a first-degree family history of MDD.
Eight healthy subjects with first-degree relatives with MDD and 16 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. The availabilities of SERT and DAT were approximated using SPECT, employing [123I] 2-((2-((dimethylamino)methyl)phenyl)thio)-5-iodophenylamine (ADAM) and [99mTc] TRODAT-1 as the ligands, respectively. There are missing data for one participant with a first-degree family history of MDD from the ADAM study, due to a lack of the radio-ligand at the time of experiment.
SERT availability in the midbrain was significantly lower in subjects with a first-degree family history of MDD than in healthy subjects. However, DAT availability was no different between two groups.
The results with regard to the midbrain SERT level suggest the heritability of MDD.
Previous studies showed that persons with mental illness had poorer quality of life than persons with the other medical conditions. We developed a manualized treatment - Quality of Life Enhancement Program (QOLEP) based on literature review and clinical experiences. the contents of the program include 4 sessions of ‘occupational life scheduling’ and 4 sessions of ‘coping skills’ provided by an occupational therapist during a 4-week period (2 times/week) which each session lasts for one to two hours.
Twenty-one subjects were recruited from community mental health rehabilitation centers in northern Taiwan. They were randomly assigned to either treatment group (N=11) or control group (N=10). the subjects in the control group received general supportive therapy over the phone twice a week for 4 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at baseline and posttreatment. the mixed-effects linear model was applied to analyze the efficacy of the treatment.
The results showed that the subjects who participated in the QOLEP had significantly better physical QOL than that of control group (-9.66+4.24, p< .05). the suicidal ideation of the subjects for both groups decreased over time (2.64+3.16, p< .05). Most of the participants indicated that the activities were easily understood, helpful to them, and are willing to participate in the program again.
With the program developed based on concept of occupational engagement, we were able to demonstrate the efficacy of specific treatment on quality of life and used it as evidence to support future development in mental health area.
It is known that Sexual Dysfunction (SD) is higher in patient with depression than in the general population. Though antidepressant seems to worsen the situation, there are also indications that the gender may play a role on it.
Evaluate the gender effect of sexual function among unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls.
The sample was formed by male and female Taiwanese outpatients in three age and sex matched groups, with sixty nine participants per group: unmedicated MDD, MDD receiving antidepressant, and healthy controls. the diagnoses of depressions were performed according DSM-IV and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire. SD was evaluated with the Chinese version of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire. Finally, the data was analyzed using SPSS software v17. Mixed designed ANOVA was used.
There are significant differences between males and females CSFQ results (sex main effect F = 82.44, p < 0.001) and between groups (group main effect F = 3.48, p = 0.034). Additionally, the 2-way interaction between sex and group was also significant (F = 3.40, p = 0.036). Simple main effect analysis shows differences among male participants, between healthy and medicated males (F = 11.41, p = 0.002), but not in female (F = 1.58, p = 0.21). However the statistics weren’t different between females groups, the medicated expresses better results (similar to healthy group) than the unmedicated one.
SD is different between genders in each of the groups. Antidepressant seems to increase SD in man, while improves sexual satisfaction/function among depressive woman. We speculate that psychological improvement after treatment may have different impact between genders on sexual satisfaction.
The presence of comorbid anxiety disorders (AD) and bipolar II disorders (BP-II) compounds disability complicates treatment, worsens prognosis, and has been understudied. The genes involved in metabolizing dopamine and encoding dopamine receptors, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) genes, may be important to the pathogenesis of BP-II comorbid with AD. We aimed to clarify ALDH2 and DRD2 genes for predisposition to BP-II comorbid with and without AD. The sample consisted of 335 subjects BP-II without AD, 127 subjects BP-II with AD and 348 healthy subjects as normal control. The genotypes of the ALDH2 and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD (OR = 2.231, P = 0.021). Moreover, a significant interaction of the DRD2 Taq-I A1/A1 and the ALDH2*1*1 genotypes in BP-II without AD was revealed (OR = 5.623, P = 0.001) compared with normal control. Our findings support the hypothesis that a unique genetic distinction between BP-II with and without AD, and suggest a novel association between DRD2 Taq-I A1/A2 genotype and BP-II with AD. Our study also provides further evidence that the ALDH2 and DRD2 genes interact in BP-II, particularly BP-II without AD.
The safety profile of MPH-LA in the paediatric population has been well studied. However, there are very limited studies reporting safety of MPH-LA in adults. We present the safety profile of MPH-LA in adults and from a pooled analysis in children.
Data from 3 multiple-dose, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 7-12 weeks duration in children with ADHD; MPH-LA (10-80mg/d) (n=314) & placebo (n=318) (aged 6-12 yrs in 2 studies &13-17 yrs in one study) were pooled for this analysis. In addition, data from 722 adult patients, 18-60 yrs of age with ADHD receiving MPH-LA 40-80 mg/d (n=542) or placebo (n=180) from double-blind dose confirmation phase of 9-week duration from one study was included in the analysis.
Common adverse events (AEs) reported by both adult and paediatric ADHD patients were decreased appetite, headache, nasopharyngitis, nausea, and insomnia (Table). Incidence of serious AEs (SAEs) was low with MPH-LA in both adults (0.7%) and children (0.6%) compared with placebo group (1.1% in adults and 0.3% in children).
Our findings show that safety profile of MPH-LA in adults is similar to that observed in the paediatric population.
Adverse events (>5%) by preferred term in multiple dose, placebo-controlled studies In adult and paedlatrlc ADHD patients
Most common AEs
MPH-LA N=542, n (%)
Placebo N=1B0, n (%)
MPH-LA N=314, n (%)
Placebo N=31S, n (%)
Total number of patients with anyAE
Analysis data set: Safety population of double-blind dose confirmation phase of 9-week duration conducted in adult ADHD patients and pooled safety population from 3 paediatric studies.