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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
A study was conducted over eight consecutive days in February 2010 in which daily variations in the vertical distributions of heterotrophic bacteria, mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton at 1–1200 m in the South-western Atlantic Ocean were investigated. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected at an oceanographic station at four regional depths: Tropical Water (TW) (1 m), South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) (250 m), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) (800 m) and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) (1200 m). Bacterial, mesozooplankton and larval fish densities significantly differed between sample depths but not between sampling tow times. In total, 154 zooplankton species and 18 larval fish species were identified. The highest number of taxa was obtained from the night-time TW trawls. This depth zone had the highest densities of mesozooplankton, larval fish and bacterioplankton (auto and heterotrophic), associated with the highest temperature and salinity and the lowest inorganic nutrient concentrations. Two sample groups were identified based on their mesozooplankton and larval fish compositions: night-time TW and other water masses (daytime TW, SACW, AAIW and UCDW). Thirty-two indicator species were detected in night-time TW. The copepod Nullosetigera impar was, to the best of our knowledge, identified for the first time on the Brazilian coast. Our results showed significant variability in the abundance and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton, bacterioplankton and larval fish along the water column in an oceanic area. We have provided new data and insights on the composition and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton, larval fish and bacterioplankton in deep waters in the South-western Atlantic Ocean.
TAOS II is a next-generation occultation survey with the goal of measuring the size distribution of the small end of the Kuiper Belt (objects with diameters 0.5–30 km). Such objects have magnitudes r > 30, and are thus undetectable by direct imaging. The project will operate three telescopes at San Pedro Mártir Observatory in Baja California, México. Each telescope will be equipped with a custom-built camera comprised of a focal-plane array of CMOS imagers. The cameras will be capable of reading out image data from 10,000 stars at a cadence of 20 Hz. The telescopes will monitor the same set of stars simultaneously to search for coincident occultation detections, thus minimising the false-positive rate. This talk described the project, and reported on the progress of the development of the survey infrastructure.
We propose a multi-layer approach to simulate hyperpycnal and hypopycnal plumes in flows with free surface. The model allows to compute the vertical profile of the horizontal and the vertical components of the velocity of the fluid flow. The model can describe as well the vertical profile of the sediment concentration and the velocity components of each one of the sediment species that form the turbidity current. To do so, it takes into account the settling velocity of the particles and their interaction with the fluid. This allows to better describe the phenomena than a single layer approach. It is in better agreement with the physics of the problem and gives promising results. The numerical simulation is carried out by rewriting the multilayer approach in a compact formulation, which corresponds to a system with nonconservative products, and using path-conservative numerical scheme. Numerical results are presented in order to show the potential of the model.
Z Andromeda is considered as the prototype of the symbiotic class. This system behaves essentially as the nearly uncontamined nucleus of a young planetary nebula. The parameters of its hot component (R=0,07 R0, T > 105 K) show that it lies close to the CSPN in the HR diagram (see Fernández–Castro et al. 1988). During the IUE lifetime (1978 onward), Z And experienced a phase of quiescence followed by an active phase which, starting in April 1984, lasted until about July 1986. Since then the star is recovering its quiescent appearance.
Low resolution spectra of two stars of the Baade Window were obtained with the 1.5m telescope at ESO. Their temperatures and gravities are obtained by using their location in colour magnitude diagrams of bulge clusters, and through synthetic spectra fitting, their metallicities are derived.
Air pollution in Mexico City, which has more than 22 million inhabitants, continues to be one of the main environmental issues. Aerosol samples (PM10) collected in Mexico City and the city of Cuernavaca (a clean reference site) have been characterized using different techniques. This multifaceted approach addresses the source apportionment of the carbonaceous matter in PM10, as well as the airborne elements and ions. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon analysis of total carbon, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and ion chromatography were performed on aerosols collected at three sites in Mexico City and one site in Cuernavaca, during 2 months of the cold-dry season (November–December) in 2012. New results obtained for Mexico City are compared with previous reports. Average levels of PM10 were higher in Mexico City sites (43.3–60.8 μg/m3) than in Cuernavaca (32.2 μg/m3). According to the material balance, PM10 collected in Mexico City had a lower contribution of crustal material (31.2–36.8%) than Cuernavaca (46.9%). Average contributions of particulate carbonaceous matter to PM10 were similar in both cities, but much higher contributions of mineral salts, trace elements, and ions were observed in Mexico City in comparison to Cuernavaca. Total organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents were higher in aerosols from Mexico City than those from Cuernavaca. The temporal variation results showed that within all locations studied the OC concentration was high compared to the EC. Results from a theoretical calculation of fossil carbon (FC) and biogenic carbon (BC) concentrations showed that FC and BC levels depend on the site: at Mexico City sites, FC was equal or higher than BC. At Cuernavaca, BC was always higher than FC.
To describe the investigation and control of a rare cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing Citrobacter freundii in a hospital in southern Florida.
An epidemiologic investigation, review of infection prevention procedures, and molecular studies including whole genome sequencing were conducted.
An outbreak of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase–3-producing C. freundii was identified at a tertiary hospital in Florida in 2014. Of the 6 cases identified, 3 occurred in the same intensive care unit and were caused by the same clone. For 2 of the 3 remaining cases, the isolates had low carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations and were unrelated by whole genome sequencing. As a response to the outbreak, supplementary environmental cleaning was implemented, including closure and terminal cleaning of the unit where the 3 cases clustered, in addition to the infection control bundle already in place at the time. No further cases were identified after these additional interventions.
Although C. freundii is not a species that commonly demonstrates carbapenem resistance, our findings suggest that carbapenemase-producing C. freundii may be underdetected even when active surveillance is in place and has a potential to cause hospital outbreak.
Z Andromedae, often considered as the prototype of symbiotic stars, experimented, after several years of quiescence, a small outburst in March-April 1984, followed by a larger one in September-October 1985. The imminence of a new activity phase was predicted by Viotti et al. (1982). Z And is, together with AG Draconis, the only symbiotic star observed both during quiescence and activity with the IUE satellite. The early photometric and spectroscopic history of Z And has been recently reviewed by Kenyon (1986).
The behaviour of Z And in the ultraviolet during quiescence has been studied by Fernåndez-Castro et al. (1988), on the basis of data obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer from 1978 to 1982. In that period of time, the UV continuum and the emission line fluxes varied quasiperidically with a period of about two years, in phase with the Hα variability found by Altamore et al. (1979), with the UBV photometry by Belyakina (1985) and also in agreement with the ephemeris given by Kenyon and Webbink (1984). The electron density derived from Si III/C III] flux ratio, also varied in phase with the UV flux. In particular, a correlation was found between the electron density variations, and the UV continuum flux at 2900 A. This fact, together with the presence of a Balmer jump in emission, indicates that the principal contributor at those wavelengths is nebular emission, mainly free-bound transitions.
In this paper we provide preliminary results of multifrequency observations of BF Cyg carried out in July 1986. The ultraviolet spectra were obtained on July 26, 1986 using the IUE satellite. The optical observations were made at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands) in July 1986 during the night 13/14 using the Isaac Newton 2.5m telescope with the Intermediate Dispersion Spectrograph (IDS, 500 mm camera) and the Image Photon Counting System (IPCS). The infrared observations were made during the night 13/14 of July, 1986, at the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands) using the Carlos Sanchez 1.5m telescope and an infrared single-channel photometer with an InSb detector.
After 22 yr of the low-level liquid scintillation counting 14C laboratory at the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA) at São Paulo University (USP), Piracicaba, Brazil, and several collaborative projects with Brazilian and international researchers from distinct scientific areas, the first 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory in Latin America was installed at the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, Brazil. A 250kV single stage accelerator produced by National Electrostatics Corporation began its operation in 2012. In this work, we compare measurements performed at the AMS Radiocarbon Laboratory at UFF (LAC-UFF) with those performed at CENA and the University of Georgia (UGAMS), Georgia, USA. All the results obtained from distinct inorganic and organic samples were in very good agreement.
Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D’ Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
In this paper a stochastic failure model for a system with stochastically dependent competing failures is analyzed. The system is subject to two types of failure: degradation failure and catastrophic failure. Both types of failure share an initial common source: an external shock process. This implies that they are stochastically dependent. In our developments of the model, the type of dependency between the two kinds of failure will be characterized. Conditional properties of the two competing risks are also investigated. These properties are the fundamental basis for the development of the maintenance strategy studied in this paper. Considering this maintenance strategy, the long-run average cost rate is derived and the optimal maintenance policy is discussed.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are progressively used for decentralized electricity generation. To obtain the maximum yield from such systems, optimisation of all components is essential. In this contribution, we provide a comprehensive modelling and sizing of PV systems for any location. Three applications are here presented providing real time monitoring of PV potential, accurate prediction of yield taking into account thermodynamic temperature effects, optimization of modules orientation addressing the effects of shading and efficient sizing of inverter for a higher yield output. When combined, these models can accurately predict the real time performance of any PV system.
Differences on physicochemical properties of poly(pentadecanolide), PPDL, synthesized by enzymatic ring opening polymerization at two different temperatures, 70 C and 90 C, using Novozyme-430 were assessed. PPDL synthesized at 90°C presents lower molecular weight and crystallinity than the one prepared at 70°C. It was detected by FTIR that PPDL synthesized at 90°C presents a large amorphous phase with more terminal OH groups. A difference in the melting and crystallization behavior was detected by differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, where the melting of the PPDL synthesized at 90°C presents multiple melting and crystallization events at lower temperature than those exhibit by PPDL synthesized at 70°C which presents a well defined single melting and crystallization event. The differences in melting behavior are attributed to the presence of a larger amorphous phase in PPDL synthesized at 90°C due to increased number of terminal OH groups that disrupt the crystalline structure. Thermal stability is also higher in PPDL synthesized at 70°C since the onset of decomposition starts 50°C above that observed in PPDL obtained at 70°C.
Efficient control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep breeding. However, the available chemically based anthelmintics are becoming less effective due to the development of parasite resistance. An alternative to this problem is biological control. In the present study, we tested the larvicidal effect of Bacillus circulans by administering a spore suspension (2 × 109 colony forming units/ml) orally to lambs naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. The number of faecal larvae was quantified daily and a significant reduction (~87%, P< 0.05) of larval development was observed after administration of B. circulans. Using a transformed B. circulans with green fluorescent protein, we were able to detect B. circulans in the faeces at 4 h post-administration and 72 h after cessation of its administration. These results suggest the use of B. circulans as a promising biological alternative for parasite control.
There are very few studies in ruminants characterizing mammary and adipose tissue (AT) expression of genes and gene networks for diets causing variations in milk fatty acid (FA) composition without altering milk fat secretion, and even less complementing this information with data on tissue FA profiles. This work was conducted in sheep in order to investigate the response of the mammary gland and the subcutaneous and perirenal AT, in terms of FA profile and mRNA abundance of genes involved in lipid metabolism, to a diet known to modify milk FA composition. Ten lactating Assaf ewes were randomly assigned to two treatments consisting of a total mixed ration based on alfalfa hay and a concentrate (60 : 40) supplemented with 0 (control diet) or 25 (SO diet) g of sunflower oil/kg of diet dry matter for 7 weeks. Milk composition, including FA profile, was analysed after 48 days on treatments. On day 49, the animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected to analyse FA and mRNA abundance of 16 candidate genes. Feeding SO did not affect animal performance but modified milk FA composition. Major changes included decreases in the concentration of FA derived from de novo synthesis (e.g. 12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) and increases in that of long-chain FA (e.g. 18:0, c9-18:1, trans-18:1 isomers and c9,t11-CLA); however, they were not accompanied by significant variations in the mRNA abundance of the studied lipogenic genes (i.e. ACACA, FASN, LPL, CD36, FABP3, SCD1 and SCD5) and transcription factors (SREBF1 and PPARG), or in the constituent FA of mammary tissue. Regarding the FA composition of AT, the little influence of SO did not appear to be linked to changes in gene mRNA abundance (decreases of GPAM and SREBF1 in both tissues, and of PPARG in the subcutaneous depot). Similarly, the great variation between AT (higher contents of saturated FA and trans-18:1 isomers in the perirenal, and of cis-18:1, c9,t11-CLA and n-3 PUFA in the subcutaneous AT) could not be related to differences in gene mRNA abundance due to tissue site (higher LPL and CD36, and lower SREBF1 in perirenal than in subcutaneous AT). Overall, these results suggest a marginal contribution of gene expression to the nutritional regulation of lipid metabolism in these tissues, at least with the examined diets and after 7 weeks on treatments. It cannot be ruled out, however, that the response to SO is mediated by other genes or post-transcriptional mechanisms.
Results of direct numerical simulations of the transitional processes that characterise the evolution of a breaking internal gravity wave to a fully developed and essentially steady turbulent patch are presented. The stationary lee wave was forced by the imposition of an appropriate bottom boundary shape within a density-stratified domain having a uniform upstream velocity and density gradient, and with the ratio of momentum to thermal (or other) diffusivity defined by
. An earlier paper considered the eventual, fully developed turbulent patch arising after the breaking process is complete (Yakovenko et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 677, 2011, pp. 103–133); the focus in this paper is on the instabilities in the breaking process itself. The flow is analysed using streamlines, density contours and temporal and spatial spectra, as well as second moments of the velocity and density fluctuations, for a Reynolds number of 4000 based on the height of the bottom topography and the upstream velocity. The computations (on a grid using in excess of
mesh points) yielded sufficient resolution to capture the fine-scale transition processes as well as the subsequent fully developed turbulence discussed earlier. It is shown that the major instability is of Rayleigh–Taylor type (RTI) with a resulting mixing region depth growing in a manner consistent with more classical RTI studies, despite the much more complicated environment. The resolution was sufficient to capture secondary Kelvin–Helmholtz-type instabilities on the developing RTI structures. Overall evolution towards the fully turbulent state characterised by a significant region of
subrange in both velocity and density spectra is very rapid. It is much faster than the long time scale characterising the subsequent evolution of the turbulent patch; this latter time scale is sufficiently large that the turbulent patch can itself be viewed as essentially steady.