To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies involving clinically recruited samples show that genetic liability to schizophrenia overlaps with that for several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depression and, in a population study, anxiety disorder and negative symptoms in adolescence.
We examined whether, at a population level, association between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders continues into adulthood, for specific anxiety disorders and as a group. We explored in an epidemiologically based cohort the nature of adult psychopathology sharing liability to schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated for 590 European-descent individuals from the Christchurch Health and Development Study. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between schizophrenia PRS and four anxiety disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder), schizophrenia/schizophreniform disorder, manic/hypomanic episode, alcohol dependence, major depression, and – using linear regression – total number of anxiety disorders. A novel population-level association with hypomania was tested in a UK birth cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children).
Schizophrenia PRS was associated with total number of anxiety disorders and with generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We show a novel population-level association between schizophrenia PRS and manic/hypomanic episode.
The relationship between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders is not restricted to psychopathology in adolescence but is present in adulthood and specifically linked to generalised anxiety disorder and panic disorder. We suggest that the association between schizophrenia liability and hypomanic/manic episodes found in clinical samples may not be due to bias.
Highly luminescent thin films of zinc tungstate (ZT) have been deposited on top of conventional scintillators (Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite, Yttrium Aluminum Garnet) for electron detection in order to replace the need for a top conducting layer, such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or aluminum, which is non-scintillating and electron absorbing. Such conventional conducting layers serve the single purpose of eliminating electrical charge build-up on the scintillator. The ZT film also eliminates charging, which has been verified by measuring the Duane–Hunt limit and electron emission versus accelerating voltage. The luminescent nature of the ZT film ensures effective detection of low energy electrons from the very top surface of the structure ZT/scintillator, which we call “first-surface scintillator”. The cathodoluminescence has been measured directly with a photodetector and spectrally resolved at different accelerating voltages. All results demonstrate the extended range of operation of the first-surface scintillator, while the conventional scintillators with a top ITO layer decline below 5 kV and have practically no output below 2 kV. Scintillators of different types were integrated in a detection system for backscattered electrons (BSE). The quality of the image at high accelerating voltages is comparable with the conventional scintillator and commercial BSE detector, while the image quality at 1 kV from the first-surface scintillator is superior.
The triazines are one of the most widely used herbicide classes ever developed and are critical for managing weed populations that have developed herbicide resistance. These herbicides are traditionally valued for their residual weed control in more than 50 crops. Scientific literature suggests that atrazine, and perhaps other s-triazines, may no longer remain persistent in soils due to enhanced microbial degradation. Experiments examined the rate of degradation of atrazine and two other triazine herbicides, simazine and metribuzin, in both atrazine-adapted and non-history Corn Belt soils, with similar soils being used from each state as a comparison of potential triazine degradation. In three soils with no history of atrazine use, the t1/2 of atrazine was at least four times greater than in three soils with a history of atrazine use. Simazine degradation in the same three sets of soils was 2.4 to 15 times more rapid in history soils than non-history soils. Metribuzin in history soils degraded at 0.6, 0.9, and 1.9 times the rate seen in the same three non-history soils. These results indicate enhanced degradation of the symmetrical triazine simazine, but not of the asymmetrical triazine metribuzin.
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, linked to several structural abnormalities of the brain. More specifically, previous findings have suggested that increased gyrification in frontal and temporal regions are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
The current study included participants at high familial risk of schizophrenia who remained well (n = 31), who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms (n = 28) and who developed schizophrenia (n = 9) as well as healthy controls (HC) (n = 16). We first tested whether individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia carried an increased burden of trait-associated alleles using polygenic risk score analysis. We then assessed the extent to which polygenic risk was associated with gyral folding in the frontal and temporal lobes.
We found that individuals at high familial risk of schizophrenia who developed schizophrenia carried a significantly greater burden of risk-conferring variants for the disorder compared to those at high risk (HR) who developed sub-diagnostic symptoms or remained well and HC. Furthermore, within the HR cohort, there was a significant and positive association between schizophrenia polygenic risk score and bilateral frontal gyrification.
These results suggest that polygenic risk for schizophrenia impacts upon early neurodevelopment to confer greater gyral folding in adulthood and an increased risk of developing the disorder.
Objectives: This study examined whether children with distinct brain disorders show different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in executive functions, and differ from children without brain disorder. Methods: Participants were children with traumatic brain injury (N=82; 8–13 years of age), arterial ischemic stroke (N=36; 6–16 years of age), and brain tumor (N=74; 9–18 years of age), each with a corresponding matched comparison group consisting of children with orthopedic injury (N=61), asthma (N=15), and classmates without medical illness (N=68), respectively. Shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed, respectively, using three Test of Everyday Attention: Children’s Version (TEA-Ch) subtests: Creature Counting, Walk-Don’t-Walk, and Code Transmission. Comparison groups did not differ in TEA-Ch performance and were merged into a single control group. Profile analysis was used to examine group differences in TEA-Ch subtest scaled scores after controlling for maternal education and age. Results: As a whole, children with brain disorder performed more poorly than controls on measures of executive function. Relative to controls, the three brain injury groups showed significantly different profiles of executive functions. Importantly, post hoc tests revealed that performance on TEA-Ch subtests differed among the brain disorder groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that different childhood brain disorders result in distinct patterns of executive function deficits that differ from children without brain disorder. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (JINS, 2017, 23, 529–538)
The fragmented ecosystems along the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve provide important habitats for biota including lichens. Nonetheless, the Reserve is disturbed by dense human populations and associated air pollution. Here we investigated patterns of lichen diversity within urban and rural sites at three different locations (Niagara, Hamilton, and Owen Sound) along the Niagara Escarpment in Ontario, Canada. Our results indicate that both lichen species richness and community composition are negatively correlated with increasing human population density and air pollution. However, our quantitative analysis of community composition using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicates that human population density and air pollution is more independent than might be assumed. The CCA analysis suggests that the strongest environmental gradient (CCA1) associated with lichen community composition includes regional pollution load and climatic variables; the second gradient (CCA2) is associated with local pollution load and human population density factors. These results increase the knowledge of lichen biodiversity for the Niagara Escarpment and urban and rural fragmented ecosystems as well as along gradients of human population density and air pollution; they suggest a differential influence of regional and local pollution loads and population density factors. This study provides baseline knowledge for further research and conservation initiatives along the Niagara Escarpment World Biosphere Reserve.
The discovery by the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer that argon is enriched to the same extent as carbon and sulfur on Jupiter requires a revision of models for the formation of this giant planet. Evidently the excess heavy elements were carried to Jupiter in icy planetesimals that formed at temperatures ≤ 30 K. This result indicates that there is no original significance in the present position of Jupiter's orbit.
Since the last General Assembly in Patras, Greece, we have held three meetings of the Working Group. The 10th Meeting was held in Mzkheta, the ancient capital of Georgia, USSR, hosted by their Academy of Sciences on April 3-7, 1984. All members except one, who was represented by a member of his Task Group, were present at the very productive meeting.
Since July 1996, 815 new names on features on bodies in the Solar System have been assigned by the WGPSN and approved at the IAU General Assembly in Kyoto in 1997. Of these names, 666 were for Venus, 17 for Mars, 3 for the Moon, 125 for the Galilean satellites, 3 for the Uranian satellite Miranda, and 1 for the minor planet Ida. 71 additional names mostly on Venus have been selected and have been given or are awaiting provisional approval by the IAU Executive Committee (EC). These names are up for final approval at the next IAU General Assembly.
During past three years from 1982 to 1984 we saw the further progress in the planets and satellites research by the space and ground-based technique, in the analysis and interpretation of the observational data. Inspite of some decrease of the activity in the planetary spacecrafts launches during this period (except of two Soviet missions to Venus) many important scientific results were obtained from the continued reduction and analysis of the measurements which were performed by Mariner 10 (Mercury), Pioneer Venus, Venera 13 and 14, Viking (Mars), Pioneer 10 and 11, and Voyager 1 and 2.
The explosive increase in the number of published papers on planetary and satellite research in recent years has made it impossible to provide an adequate summary of progress in the field over a given three year period in the space allotted for this purpose. The problem is particularly acute for the current epoch - 1 January 1976 to 31 December 1978 - because it encompasses major missions to Mars and Venus by the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as a large number of exciting discoveries made from the ground.
Interfacing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) with biological systems holds considerable promise for building-sensitive biosensors and diagnostic tools. We present a simple model that describes the performance of biosensors in which an OECT is integrated with a biological barrier layer. Using experimentally derived parameters we explore the limits of sensitivity and find that it is dependent on the resistance of the barrier layer. This work provides guidelines on how to optimize biosensors in which OECTs transduce changes in the impedance of biological layers, including lipid bilayer membranes and confluent cell layers.
Mineralized soil nitrogen (N) is an important source of N for grassland production. Some soils can supply large quantities of plant-available N through mineralization of soil organic matter. Grass grown on such soils require less fertilizer N applications per unit yield. A reliable, accurate and user-friendly method to account for soil N supply potential across a large diversity of soils and growing conditions is needed to improve N management and N recommendations over time. In the current study, the effectiveness of chemical N tests and soil properties to predict soil N supply for grass uptake across 30 Irish soil types varying in N supply potential was investigated under controlled environmental conditions. The Illinois soil N test (ISNT) combined with soil C : N ratio provided a good estimate of soil N supply in soils with low residual mineral N. Total oxidized N (TON) had the largest impact on grass dry matter (DM) yield and N uptake across the 30 soil types, declining in its influence in later growth periods. This reflected the high initial mineral N levels in these soils, which declined over time. In the current study, a model with ISNT-N, C : N and TON (log TON) best explained variability in grass DM yield and N uptake. All three rapid chemical soil tests could be performed routinely on field samples to provide an estimate of soil N supply prior to making N fertilizer application decisions. It can be concluded that these soil tests, through their assessment of soil N supply potential, can be effective tools for N management on grassland; however, field studies are needed to evaluate this under more diverse growing conditions.
Eight ring-ditches and several stretches of pit alignment have been excavated between 1981 and 1985, as part of the investigation of an extensive cropmark complex on a gravel terrace in the Upper Severn valley at Four Crosses, northern Powys. Excavation of the ring-ditches, which form part of a more scattered barrow cemetery, has revealed a long and complex pattern of development of barrow types and burial forms in the period between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Bronze Age. This is compared with the recently published sequence from the neighbouring upland barrow cemetery at Trelystan, and subdivided into four hypothetical phases. There is evidence of activity in the vicinity of some of the sites in the Iron Age, Romano-British, and possibly the early post-Roman period.
A number of copy number variants (CNVs) have been suggested as
susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. For some of these the data
remain equivocal, and the frequency in individuals with schizophrenia is
To determine the contribution of CNVs at 15 schizophrenia-associated loci
(a) using a large new data-set of patients with schizophrenia
(n = 6882) and controls (n = 6316),
and (b) combining our results with those from previous studies.
We used Illumina microarrays to analyse our data. Analyses were
restricted to 520 766 probes common to all arrays used in the different
We found higher rates in participants with schizophrenia than in controls
for 13 of the 15 previously implicated CNVs. Six were nominally
significantly associated (P<0.05) in this new
data-set: deletions at 1q21.1, NRXN1, 15q11.2 and
22q11.2 and duplications at 16p11.2 and the Angelman/Prader–Willi
Syndrome (AS/PWS) region. All eight AS/PWS duplications in patients were
of maternal origin. When combined with published data, 11 of the 15 loci
showed highly significant evidence for association with schizophrenia
We strengthen the support for the majority of the previously implicated
CNVs in schizophrenia. About 2.5% of patients with schizophrenia and 0.9%
of controls carry a large, detectable CNV at one of these loci. Routine
CNV screening may be clinically appropriate given the high rate of known
deleterious mutations in the disorder and the comorbidity associated with
these heritable mutations.
The nitrogen (N) cycle is one of the best studied elemental cycles. However, the N flows and transformations, in particular in aggregated soils, at small scales and in plant–soil systems are not yet fully understood. Analytical and molecular techniques are now available to address N dynamics at small scales. The methodological advances should go hand in hand with the development of suitable mathematical models addressing the small scale and the full complexity of the many interacting effects. The importance of denitrification within the N cycle is highlighted and used as an example of the progress achieved in recent times. Research gaps and possible research pathways are outlined.