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Childhood maltreatment (CM) plays an important role in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine whether CM severity and type are associated with MDD-related brain alterations, and how they interact with sex and age.
Within the ENIGMA-MDD network, severity and subtypes of CM using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were assessed and structural magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with MDD and healthy controls were analyzed in a mega-analysis comprising a total of 3872 participants aged between 13 and 89 years. Cortical thickness and surface area were extracted at each site using FreeSurfer.
CM severity was associated with reduced cortical thickness in the banks of the superior temporal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus as well as with reduced surface area of the middle temporal lobe. Participants reporting both childhood neglect and abuse had a lower cortical thickness in the inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal lobe, and precuneus compared to participants not exposed to CM. In males only, regardless of diagnosis, CM severity was associated with higher cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Finally, a significant interaction between CM and age in predicting thickness was seen across several prefrontal, temporal, and temporo-parietal regions.
Severity and type of CM may impact cortical thickness and surface area. Importantly, CM may influence age-dependent brain maturation, particularly in regions related to the default mode network, perception, and theory of mind.
Methods for the control of molecular deposition and orientation are critical for the development of organic electronic devices. Here, we show the fabrication of ribbons of the optical material polydiacetylene (PDA) using a controlled evaporative self-assembly method. The ability to form these ribbons is highly dependent on both the side groups on the PDA as well as the solvent used in the preparation. Arrays of ribbons of one type of PDA, poly[1,6-di(N-carbazolyl)-2,4-hexadiyne], with widths on the order of 1–2 µm and lengths of 100s of micrometers, could be successfully obtained with good orientation.
Weather conditions and social contact patterns provide some clues to understanding year-round influenza epidemics in the tropics. Recent studies suggest that contact patterns may direct influenza transmission in the tropics as critically as the aerosol channel in temperate regions. To examine this argument, we analysed a representative nationwide survey dataset of contact diaries with comprehensive weather data in Taiwan. Methods we used included model-free estimated relative changes in reproduction number, R0; relative changes in the number of contacts; and model-based estimated relative changes in mean contacts using zero-inflated negative binomial regression models. Overall, social contact patterns clearly differ by demographics (such as age groups), personal idiosyncrasies (such as personality and happiness), and social institutions (such as the division of weekdays and weekend days). Further, weather conditions also turn out to be closely linked to contact patterns under various circumstances. Fleeting contacts, for example, tend to diminish when it rains hard on weekdays, while physical contacts also decrease during weekend days with heavy rain. Frequent social contacts on weekdays and under good weather conditions, including high temperature and low absolute humidity, all might facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases in tropical regions.
Flexible electronics and microsystems are an emerging technology with a tremedous impact to the future electronics and information technology and widespread applications. Various devices and microsystems have been developed. Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are a type of essential device for electronics, microsensors and microsystems; however there is no activity on the development of flexible SAW devices yet. This paper reports the development of flexible SAW devices on cheap, bendable and disposable plastic films. Flexible SAW devices with resonant frequency of 198.1 MHz and 447 MHz for the Rayleigh and Lamb waves respectively have been obtained with a large transmission signal up to 18dB. The flexible SAW devices have also demonstrated their ability for acoustic streaming with a velocity up to 3.4 cm/s and for particle concentration. The results have clearly demonstrated that the flexible SAW devices have great potential for applications in electronics and microsystems.
We carried out an extensive photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the SPB binary, HD 25558 (see Fig. 1 for the time and geographic distribution of the observations). The ~2000 spectra obtained at 13 observatories during 5 observing seasons, the ground-based multi-colour light curves and the photometric data from the MOST satellite revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a very long orbital period of about 9 years. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and have found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both components show line-profile variations consistent with stellar pulsations. Altogether, 11 independent frequencies and one harmonic frequency were identified in the data. The observational data do not allow the inference of a reliable orbital solution, thus, disentangling cannot be performed on the spectra. Since the lines of the two components are never completely separated, the analysis is very complicated. Nevertheless, pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the cross-correlated line profiles was successful, and we were able to attribute all the frequencies to the primary or secondary component. Spectroscopic and photometric mode-identification was also performed for several of these frequencies of both binary components. The spectroscopic mode-identification results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. While the primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d rotation period, seen at ~60° inclination, the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d rotation period, and is seen at ~20° inclination. Our spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field was detected in the primary.
The detailed analysis and results of this study will be published elsewhere.
Turbulent particle transport is investigated with a quasilinear theory that is motivated by the boron impurity transport experiments in the Alcator C-Mod. Eigenvalue problems for sets of reduced fluid equations for multi-component plasmas are solved for the self-consistent fluctuating field vectors composed of the electric potential φ, the main ion density δni, the impurity density δnz and the ion temperature fluctuation δTi. For Alcator C-Mod parameters, we investigate two drift wave models: (1) the density-gradient-driven impurity drift wave and (2) the ion-temperature-gradient-driven ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode. Analytic and numerical results for particle transport coefficients are derived and compared with the transport data and the neoclassical theory. We explore the ability of the model to explain impurity density profiles in three confinement regimes: H-mode, I-mode and internal transport barrier (ITB) regime in C-Mod. Related experiments reported on the Large Helical Device are briefly discussed.
The accuracy and robustness of new Buckingham potentials for the pyrochlores Gd2Ti2O7 and Gd2Zr2O7 is demonstrated by calculating and comparing values for a selection of point defects with those calculated using a selection of other published potentials and our own ab inito values. Frenkel pair defect formation energies are substantially lowered in the presence of a small amount of local cation disorder. The activation energy for oxygen vacancy migration between adjacent O48f sites is calculated for Ti and Zr pyrochlores with the energy found to be lower for the non-defective Ti than for the Zr pyrochlore by ∼0.1 eV. The effect of local cation disorder on the VO48f → VO48f migration energy is minimal for Gd2Ti2O7, while the migration energy is lowered typically by ∼43 % for Gd2Zr2O7. As the healing mechanisms of these pyrochlores are likely to rely upon the availability of oxygen vacancies, the healing of a defective Zr pyrochlore is predicted to be faster than for the equivalent Ti pyrochlore.
The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms.
We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV MD between the ages of 30 and 60 years from across China. Student's t tests, and logistic and multiple logistic regression models were used to determine the association between suicidality and other clinical features of MD.
Suicidal symptomatology is significantly associated with a more severe form of MD, as indexed by both the number of episodes and number of MD symptoms. Patients reporting suicidal thoughts, plans or attempts experienced a significantly greater number of stressful life events. The depressive symptom most strongly associated with lifetime suicide attempt was feelings of worthlessness (odds ratio 4.25, 95% confidence interval 2.9–6.3). Excessive guilt, diminished concentration and impaired decision-making were also significantly associated with a suicide attempt.
This study contributes to the existing literature on risk factors for suicidal symptomatology in depressed women. Identifying specific depressive symptoms and co-morbid psychiatric disorders may help improve the clinical assessment of suicide risk in depressed patients. These findings could be helpful in identifying those who need more intense treatment strategies in order to prevent suicide.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
Planar arrays of microwells were fabricated in Silicon on borosilicate glass (pyrex) substrates in order to facilitate live cell fluorescence imaging experiments for cells sequestered inside their own individual microenvironments for incubation and quantification of single cell seceretions. Two methods of deep silicon etching were compared: cryogenic deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and time multiplexed DIRE (Bosch Process). A 200um Si wafer was bonded to a 500um pyrex substrate. Cryogenic DRIE allowed for the reliable fabrication of 75-100um deep microwells with 60x60um openings across a 10x10mm substrate while the Bosh Process allowed for etching entirely through the Si layer, producing 200um deep microwells with transparent bottoms and steep sidewalls while maintaining the target 60x60um opening geometry.
Monoclonal antibodies are increasingly used in the treatment of cancer due to their enhanced targeting and immune system stimulation properties. Dosage guidelines typically do not account for personal cancer load or metabolism, thereby possibly affecting treatment outcome or causing unwanted side effects. The requirement for an assay that can quickly and precisely measure the concentration of the monoclonal antibody in a serum sample of a patient during therapy is unmet. A bead-based assay with peptide antigen mimetics has been developed to rapidly determine the concentration of antibody drug present in serum specimens with high sensitivity. Alemtuzumab (anti-CD52) and rituximab (anti-CD20) antigen mimetic peptides, as discovered by phage display, were synthesized on 10 um TentaGel resin beads using conventional solid phase peptide synthesis techniques. The beads were modified to allow for multiplexing and microfluidic handling via fluorescent labeling and magnetic functionalization. The antigen-displaying fluoromagnetic particles were incubated with spiked serum samples which allowed free antibody to be captured. Primary antibody detection was performed on alemtuzumab while rituximab detection was used to compensate for non-specific serum binding to the beads. After washing, the beads were incubated with a fluorescently tagged secondary label for detection by flow cytometry. (Results) A fast, low cost, specific assay has been developed with several key techniques which allows detection at low concentration (0.1ug/ml) of spiked samples. Primary to achieving this detection limit was the implementation of a compensation scheme where two antigen mimetic peptides behave linearly (R2=0.996) which enables the calculation of the zero response of the antigen mimetic peptide of interest (alemtuzumab antigen mimetic) while measuring the zero response of the compensatory antigen mimetic peptide (rituximab antigen mimetic) during primary assay measurement. This reduces fluorescence response variation due to variations present due to sample preparation, storage and different patients because of the equivalent interactions these effects have on the compensatory beads. The developed assay is therefore robust against serum variation and enables a lower limit of detection.
Phase transformations and phase transition temperatures in several Nb-rich γ-TiAl based alloys were investigated experimentally and compared to thermodynamic simulations. The present study combines light-optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential-scanning-calorimetry for the characterization of the prevailing phases and phase transformations. Thermodynamic simulation based on the CALPHAD method was used for predict phase stabilities. The results from experiments on a variety of γ-TiAl based alloys are compared to thermodynamic calculations. Finally, the influence of carbon on the transition temperatures is presented.
The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich Ti-Al alloys was studied using a TiAl single crystal with a composition gradient. A TiAl single crystal with gradient compositions from 55 to 75 at.% Al was prepared by annealing in a molten Al at 1234°C. The single crystal exhibits long-period ordering into different LPSs depending on the Al concentration as follows: an Al5Ti3 type short-range order, h-Al2Ti and one-dimensional antiphase domain structures. These LPSs show an orientation relationship in which Al (002) layers of the LPSs are parallel to those of the TiAl matrix. The atomic arrangements of the LPSs are characterized in common as the alternate stacking of the Al (002) layers and Ti-Al (002) layers. It is thus concluded that the ordering of this type of LPSs and the phase transition between these LPSs are explained as structural changes in Ti-Al (002) layers of the Al-rich L10-TiAl crystal.
Thermomechanically processed TiAl-based intermetallic alloys with various alloy compositions and microstructures were tensile tested in various environmental media including air, water vapor and a mixture gas of 5vol.%H2+Ar as a function of temperature. All the TiAl-based intermetallic alloys showed reduced tensile fracture stress (or elongation) in air, water vapor and a mixture gas of 5vol.%H2+Ar not only at ambient temperature (RT∼600K) but also at high temperature mostly from 600K to 1000K (sometimes higher temperature than 1000K). The high-temperature environmental embrittlement of TiAl-based intermetallic alloy depended upon the microstructure. The possible species causing the high-temperature environmental embrittlement are hydrogen atoms decomposed from water vapor (H2O) or hydrogen gas (H2), similar to those causing the low-temperature environmental embrittlement.
In this paper the deformation behavior of a fully lamellar microstructure, which is usually present in cast γ-TiAl based alloys, is studied by numerical modeling. After large compressive deformation at elevated temperatures the lamellar colonies are often bent or buckled depending on their orientation, which is representative for a deformation instability characterized by a large wave length. Such a deformation behavior is triggered by both, structural defects of the lamellae and their somewhat irregular arrangement. In addition, a shear band-type deformation mode occurs according to an instability mode exhibiting a short wave length. These two deformation modes interact in a rather subtle way, which leads to a very inhomogeneous deformation pattern.
The growth of the D03-type antiphase domain (APD) in Fe3Al was investigated focusing on the effect of excess vacancies that were introduced during the quenching process from the disordered state. The variation in the APD size exhibited considerable deviation from the conventional “parabolic growth law” in the early stage of APD growth. This variation was numerically calculated on the assumption that the migration of the APD boundaries was enhanced by non-equilibrium excess vacancies and the vacancy concentration decreased during the isothermal annealing for the APD growth. The calculated variations in the APD size could be successfully fitted to the experimental results in cases with quenching temperatures (Tq) of 873 K or 1073 K, but not when Tq was 1273 K. The APD growth in the latter case was much slower than the expected growth derived from the calculation. This discrepancy was attributed to the rapid decrease in the vacancy concentration due to vacancy clustering since a significant amount of dotted contrasts were observed in TEM image of only the specimen quenched from 1273K.
Microstructure, high-temperature tensile deformation and oxidation property of Ni3Si-Ni3Ti-Ni3Nb multi-phase intermetallic alloys with a microstructure consisting of L12, D024 and D0a phases were investigated. The tensile stress as well as the tensile elongation of these multi-phase alloys increased with increasing Si content, i.e. the volume fraction of L12 phase in the wide range of test temperatures. 50-ppm boron addition to these multi-phase intermetallic alloys resulted in increased tensile stress and tensile elongation. The multi-phase intermetallic alloy with a high Si content had good oxidation resistance, and also the boron addition to this alloy resulted in enhanced oxidation resistance. From an overall evaluation of the properties examined, it was shown that the multi-phase intermetallic alloy, which has a high Si content and is composed of L12 matrix dispersed by D024 and D0a phases, had the most favorable properties as high-temperature mechanical and chemical materials.