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Mr. Chairman, I wish to express appreciation for the invitation to appear before the Committee. It is Congress that must take the lead to end what is essentially a “cover-up” of U.S. policy on southern Africa. The Congress must insist on
(1)a frank statement of the facts on the situation in South Africa,
(2)an open analysis of U.S. interests in that area,
(3)progress towards a therapeutic confrontation, discussion, debate, and analysis of what U.S. policy should be,
(4)change with a view towards developing an honest, sensible and rational U.S. policy—consistent with U.S. interests—towards South Africa.
Five cases of STEC O157 phage type (PT) 21/28 reported consumption of raw cows' drinking milk (RDM) produced at a dairy farm in the South West of England. STEC O157 PT21/28 was isolated from faecal specimens from milking cows on the implicated farm. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) showed that human and cattle isolates were the same strain. Further analysis of WGS data confirmed that sequences of isolates from an additional four cases (who did not report consumption of RDM when first questioned) fell within the same five single nucleotide polymorphism cluster as the initial five cases epidemiologically linked to the consumption of RDM. These four additional cases identified by WGS were investigated further and were, ultimately, associated with the implicated farm. The RDM outbreak strain encoded stx2a, which is associated with increased pathogenicity and severity of symptoms. Further epidemiological analysis showed that 70% of isolates within a wider cluster containing the outbreak strain were from cases residing in, or linked to, the same geographical region of England. During this RDM outbreak, use of WGS improved case ascertainment and provided insights into the evolution of a highly pathogenic clade of STEC O157 PT21/28 stx2a associated with the South West of England.
Clinical databases in congenital and paediatric cardiac care provide a foundation for quality improvement, research, policy evaluations and public reporting. Structured audits verifying data integrity allow database users to be confident in these endeavours. We report on the initial audit of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC4) clinical registry.
Materials and methods
Participants reviewed the entire registry to determine key fields for audit, and defined major and minor discrepancies for the audited variables. In-person audits at the eight initial participating centres were conducted during a 12-month period. The data coordinating centre randomly selected intensive care encounters for review at each site. The audit consisted of source data verification and blinded chart abstraction, comparing findings by the auditors with those entered in the database. We also assessed completeness and timeliness of case submission. Quantitative evaluation of completeness, accuracy, and timeliness of case submission is reported.
We audited 434 encounters and 29,476 data fields. The aggregate overall accuracy was 99.1%, and the major discrepancy rate was 0.62%. Across hospitals, the overall accuracy ranged from 96.3 to 99.5%, and the major discrepancy rate ranged from 0.3 to 0.9%; seven of the eight hospitals submitted >90% of cases within 1 month of hospital discharge. There was no evidence for selective case omission.
Based on a rigorous audit process, data submitted to the PC4 clinical registry appear complete, accurate, and timely. The collaborative will maintain ongoing efforts to verify the integrity of the data to promote science that advances quality improvement efforts.
In this paper we discuss the formation of InN on GaN heterostructures. Film growth was accomplished using a new method coined Migration Enhanced Epitaxial Afterglow (MEAglow), an improved form of pulsed delivery Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) . Initial x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis results indicated that an InGaN alloy layer formed under the InN during growth. No GaN was seen from the original buffer layer. It was postulated that indium metal deposited prior to complete nitridation diffused into the relatively thin GaN layer producing InGaN. To verify the integrity of the insulating GaN layer, a third party GaN substrate was substituted. Results were unchanged. Parameters were then modified to reduce the amount of indium used for the initial metal deposition. XRD results indicated a sharper interface between the semi-insulating GaN and conductive InN layer. Hall Effect measurements are included. We’ve shown that the growth of a device suitable heterostructure is possible using the MEAglow technique.
The highest mobility nitrides ever grown were indium nitride polycrystalline thin films. The original reactive ion sputtering unit used to produce those films is still in existence and has been substantially upgraded. In this paper we describe some of the parameters that are important for high purity indium nitride growth, while providing the most recent results for films grown with the upgraded system. A long lag time (greater than 100 hours of growth time) has been observed before obtaining stable material properties for a given set of growth conditions.
The band-gap of indium nitride has long been believed to be about 1.9eV with slight variations due to band-tailing in polycrystalline samples and degenerate doping. Recently, other values as low as 0.7 eV have apparently been observed. We have compared samples spanning this apparent range of band-gap using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), in conjunction with spectral optical density measurements. Once structural inhomogeneiteies are taken into account, we show that much of the conflicting data are compatible with direct photoionisation with a threshold energy of about 1.0eV. This feature was first reported in polycrystalline indium nitride over 15 years ago and attributed to a ∣p> like defect state. We ask whether the feature may instead be a direct band-gap.
A 4Mb magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) with a novel magnetic free layer and toggle switching mode is presented. The new free layer uses a balanced synthetic-antiferromagnet trilayer structure and a novel write pulse sequence to provide robust switching performance with immunity from ½-select disturbs. This new mode greatly improves the switching performance of the MRAM as compared to conventional MRAM. The intrinsic reliability of the magnetoresistive tunnel junction (MTJ) and the metal interconnect system of MRAM are two other areas of great interest due to the new materials involved. Time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and resistance drift were the two main failure mechanisms identified for intrinsic memory bit reliability. Results indicated that a lifetime over 10 years is achievable under the operating conditions. Finally data retention is demonstrated over times that are orders of magnitude longer than 10 years.
Patients with complex congenital cardiac disease are increasingly surviving to adulthood and many are keen to consider pregnancy. Haemodynamic status should be optimal prior to embarking on pregnancy and for some this may mean surgical intervention to alleviate haemodynamic residua.
We report the successful implantation of a percutaneous pulmonary stent valve into a right atrial to right ventricular conduit in a young woman with a Bjork modification of the Fontan palliation to improve haemodynamics prior pregnancy.
Catheter interventions offer a low-risk option for the treatment of haemodynamic residua and innovative use of new technologies such as the pulmonary stent valve presents a novel, safe, and effective treatment for such conduit problems.
The clinical significance of different genetic subtypes or assemblages of Giardia lamblia is uncertain. Cases of giardiasis in south-west London between 1999 and 2005 were studied, comparing molecular-typing results with clinical and epidemiological findings from routine surveillance. We identified 819 cases, of whom 389 returned surveillance questionnaires. A subset of 267 faecal samples was submitted for typing by sequencing of the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and ribosomal RNA genes, and/or a separate duplex PCR of the tpi gene. Typing was successful in 199 (75%) samples by at least one of the molecular methods. Assemblage A accounted for 48 (24%) samples and Assemblage B for 145 (73%); six (3%) were mixed. Both assemblages had similar seasonality, age distribution and association with travel. Clinical features were available for 59 successfully typed cases: both assemblages caused similar illness, but Assemblage A was significantly more frequently associated with fever than Assemblage B.
LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) is an innovative radio telescope optimized for the frequency range 30–240 MHz. The telescope is realized as a phased aperture array without any moving parts. Digital beam forming allows the telescope to point to any part of the sky within a second. Transient buffering makes retrospective imaging of explosive short-term events possible. The scientific focus of LOFAR will initially be on four key science projects (KSPs): (i) Detection of the formation of the very first stars and galaxies in the universe during the so-called epoch of reionization by measuring the power spectrum of the neutral hydrogen 21-cm line (Shaver et al. 1999) on the ∼ 5′ scale; (ii) Low-frequency surveys of the sky with of order 108 expected new sources; (iii) All-sky monitoring and detection of transient radio sources such as γ-ray bursts, X-ray binaries, and exo-planets (Farrell et al. 2004); and (iv) Radio detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos (Falcke & Gorham 2003) allowing for the first time access to particles beyond 1021 eV (Scholten et al. 2006). Apart from the KSPs open access for smaller projects is also planned. Here we give a brief description of the telescope.