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Electron field emission measurements have been performed on thin film cold cathode materials grown, on molybdenum, by a modified MPACVD diamond process. Specifically the modification is due to the addition of nitrogen and oxygen, in varying ratios, during the diamond growth phase. Characterization using Raman spectroscopy shows features at 1190, 1330 and 1550 cm−1. A simple triode device was fabricated for electron emission characterization. KAPTON® film is used as the insulating layer and a Mo mesh is used as the extraction gate electrode. The collector is an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass plate which is positively biased with respect to the gate electrode. Field emission characteristics have shown current measurements of greater than I microamp for fields of 40 V/micron. Gate currents are typically 1000 times greater than the emitted current. Issues currently being addressed include improvement in the total emitted current, current stability and device failure. We also present field emission measurements on diamond films grown by HFCVD.
Boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond films were grown on natural diamond (001) substrates using microwave-assisted plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The surface structures were investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). This showed a dimertype 2×1 reconstruction structure with single-layer steps where dimer rows on the upper terrace are normal to or parallel to the step edges. We found that dimer rows parallel to the step edges are much longer than those normal to the step edges. The nearly single-domain surface structure observed by STM is in agreement with the low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) patterns from these surfaces. The high atomic resolution STM image showed that the local 1×1 configurations exist.
We describe the applicability of oxygen based Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) etching of diamond for the purpose of fabricating electronic test structures and recessed gate field effect transistors. Boron doped homoepitaxial diamond films grown in a microwave assisted CVD reactor were used for this study. Etch rates from 8 nm/min up to 0.5 μm/min. were achieved depending on etch parameters.
This paper reviews the status of diamond heteroepitaxy approached by chemical vapor deposition and by physical methods. Reported are experiments with cubic boron nitride and nickel conducted with the help of microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction data confirm diamond heteroepitaxy on the (111) faces of cubic boron nitride crystals. Heteroepitaxy on nickel was not demonstrated yet nevertheless suppression of graphite nucleation was achieved by formation of nickel hydride.
Schottky diodes were formed with free-standing polycrystalline thin film diamond base as well as with polycrystalline diamond films grown on crystalline silicon. Current-voltage and internal photoemission measurements were used to characterize the Schottky diodes and the diamond film. Internal photoemission measurements yielded a barrier height of 1.15 eV. A comparison of experimental data for metal contacts to free-standing diamond films and those on silicon substrates indicates that both rectification and internal photoemission originate at the metal/diamond interface.
We describe the electrical characteristics of boron doped homoepitaxial diamond films fabricated using a plasma assisted CVD process, formation of ohmic contacts, high temperature (580°C) Schottky diodes, and a rudimentary diamond MESFET. We also report reversible changes of the conductive state of the diamond surface by various surface treatments for both natural and thin-film diamonds.
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