It has previously been suggested that southern Tunisian oases may be suitable areas for the circulation of flaviviruses. In order to anticipate and prevent possible epidemiological spread of flaviviruses in humans and domestic animals, the ecology of their transmission in the oasis system needs to be better understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of anti-flavivirus antibodies in the laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis), an abundant resident bird in Tunisian oases. Anti-flavivirus antibodies were detected in 17% of sampled doves. Ten per cent of the total tested doves were West Nile virus (WNV) seropositive and 4% were Usutu virus (USUV) seropositive, which provides the first evidence of USUV circulation in Tunisian birds. We also found that the occurrence probability of anti-flavivirus antibodies in dove plasma increased with decreasing distance to coast, suggesting that doves inhabiting coastal oases were more exposed to flaviviruses compared with those inhabiting inland oases. We also found significantly higher antibody occurrence probability in adult doves compared with young doves, which underlines the effect of exposure time. Overall, our results suggest that the laughing dove may be used for WNV and USUV surveillance in southern Tunisia. They also stress the need for investigations combining data on birds and mosquitoes to better understand the ecological factors governing the circulation of flaviviruses in this area.