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Parotid gland carcinoma is a rare and complicated histopathological classification. Therefore, assembling a sufficient number of cases with long-term outcomes in a single institute can present a challenge.
The medical records of 108 parotid gland carcinoma patients who were treated at Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan, between 1983 and 2014 were reviewed. The survival outcomes were analysed according to clinicopathological findings.
Forty-six patients had low clinical stage tumours (I–II), and 62 patients had high clinical stage tumours (III–IV). Fifty-two, 10 and 46 patients had low-, intermediate- and high-grade tumours, respectively. Twenty-seven of 65 cases had positive surgical margins. In high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours, adjuvant radiation therapy was correlated with local recurrence-free survival (p = 0.0244). Intermediate- to high-grade tumours and positive surgical margins were significantly associated with disease-specific survival in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0058).
The results of this study show that adjuvant radiation therapy is useful for improved local control in patients with high clinical stage and intermediate- to high-grade tumours.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
XBT 0748-676 is a dipping LMXB source, with dips in X-ray intensity occurring at the orbital period of ~ 3.8 hrs. It is a member of the sub-group of dipping sources also including XB 1916-053 and XB 1254-690 in which the spectral evolution in dipping has previously been modelled by the “absorbed plus unabsorbed” approach, in which the dip spectra are modelled by two terms, each having the same form as used for non-dip emission, one of which is strongly absorbed but one which is not absorbed, which has a normalisation decreasing strongly in dipping. This energy-independent decrease has sometimes been taken to imply electron scattering in the absorber.
Absorption line features were detected at 4.1 keV from X 1636-536 with the Tenma satellite in the spectra of X-ray bursts (Waki et al., 1984). Similar features were also detected from X 1608-52 and EXO 1747-214 during bursts (Nakamura et al., 1988; Magnier et al., 1989). These features at 4.1 keV may be interpreted as the redshifted Kα absorption line of helium-like iron atoms. However, such interpretation requires extremely soft equation of state for the nuclear matter, and confirmation with high resolution detectors is urged (Lewin et al., 1993). To investigate the line features, we observed X 1636-536 with ASCA for ~ 240 ksec.
This study determined the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from broiler flocks in Japan. Caecal dropping samples were collected from 288 broiler flocks between November 2007 and February 2010. Salmonella was prevalent in 248 (86·1%) broiler flocks. The top three serovars were S. Infantis, S. Manhattan and S. Schwarzengrund. S. Infantis was found in all regions tested in this study. However, S. Manhattan and S. Schwarzengrund were frequently found only in the western part of Japan. High antimicrobial resistance rates were observed against oxytetracycline (90·2%), dihydrostreptomycin (86·7%) and ampicillin (36·5%), and 258 (90·5%) of 285 isolates were resistant to two or more antimicrobial agents. Interestingly, 26·3% of isolates were resistant to ceftiofur, especially 38·1% of S. Infantis isolates, although its use in broilers has not been approved in Japan. This study showed that Salmonella is highly prevalent (86·1%) in Japanese broiler flocks, that 90·5% of Salmonella isolates were multidrug-resistant, and that S. Infantis frequently exhibited resistance to cephalosporin antimicrobial agents.
Human salmonellosis cases, particularly those caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, have been closely linked to egg consumption. This epidemiological survey was conducted to determine the baseline Salmonella prevalence and identify the risk factors for Salmonella prevalence in laying-hen farms in Japan. Caecal excrement samples and dust samples were obtained from 400 flocks in 338 laying-hen farms. Salmonella was identified in 20·7% of the farms and 19·5% of the flocks. The prevalence of Salmonella was significantly higher in flocks reared in windowless houses than in those reared in open houses. In addition, the risk of Salmonella presence was significantly higher when the windowless house farms implemented induced moulting or in-line egg processing. Efforts to reduce human salmonellosis in Japan should continue to focus on the establishment of control measures in laying-hen farms, especially those with windowless houses implementing induced moulting and equipped with in-line egg processing.
Excitonic resonance energies in a C-plane AlN epilayer on the (0001) sapphire substrate grown by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy were determined as a function of temperature by means of optical reflectance (OR) and cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. The OR spectra exhibited distinct reflectance anomalies at the photon energies just above the multiple internal reflection fringes, and the spectral lineshape was fitted considering A (???u7v7c) and BC (???9v,???17v7c) exciton transitions. The energies of them at 0 K were obtained to be 6.211 and 6.266 eV, giving the crystal field splitting (Δcr) of approximately 55 meV. The AlNfilm exhibited an excitonic emission even at 300 K, which is due to the small Bohr radius of excitons and large longitudinal optical phonon energies. The Einstein characteristic temperature Q E was estimated to be 580 K.
Thin films of GaN were grown on the Al2O3 (0001) substrate by the laserinduced chemical vapor deposition technique. Morphology were different for the films grown with and without laser irradiation. Moreover, the density of nucleus and the growth rate in the case of the growth with the parallel irradiation were greater than those without irradiation. Differences were attributed to presence of photo-dissociated species in the case of the laser irradiation. Additional irradiation normal to the substrate decreased the rate, probably because of the accelerated desorption of the reactive adsorbed species.
The microstructure of the electroless-plated CoNiReP/NiMoP doublelayered media was examined with various methods and the origin of the inplane anisotropy initial regions of the CoNiReP recording layers was discussed. It was confirmed that the initial region consists of randomly oriented fcc phase with Ni-rich composition, showing the granular condition, while the perpendicular anisotropy region at the top consists of <002> perpendicularly oriented hcp phase, showing the columnar structure. It is considered that the formation of the initial region is due to a preferential deposition of Ni onto the underlayers, and that the thickness of the initial region changes due to a change in the condition of the underlayers, especially that of deposition activity and/or morphology at their surfaces.
Initial oxidation process of silicon in UV/ozone ambient has been monitored using a multi-wavelength, in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. Ozone gas was chemically formed by photochemical reaction of oxygen under ulUmviolet illuimination. The oxide growth was monitored for hydrogenated silicon surfaces as functions of oxygen gas flow rate, gas pressure and wafer temperature. Initial oxidation rates were very high at almost all the temperatures. The oxidation rate was 0.2 nm/min about ten times higher than that for thermal oxidation without UV light at low temperatures. The accelerated oxidation was probably due to an electric field effect on the oxidation of back-bond silicon by active oxygen atoms included in the ozone gas.
We have developed a new type of printed circuit board which is called “IBSS” (Interpenetrating polymer network Build up Structure System) for the purpose of meeting the demand of high density routing, high reliability and low cost substrates in IC packages. The new technology achieves 50μm line / 50μm space and 100μm diameter photo‐via hole. Full additive method is applied for patterning, and the build‐up method is used to form the multi‐layer structure. The newly developed photo‐imagable dielectric resin, “IPN”, which has a glass transition of 200'C, a copper peel strength of 1.5kg/cm, and withstands 1000 cycles of temperature cycling (TCB), is used for IBSS. IPN is composed of high heat resistant photo‐sensitive epoxy and supper engineering plastic. This IBSS technology is suitable for direct chip attachment. This paper presents the characteristics IBSS.
A hyperbranched conjugated polymer containing triphenylamine was prepared by the Grignard reaction of tris(4-bromophenyl)amine 1, via the coupling of N, N-bis(4-bromophenyl)-N-(4-bromomagnesiophenyl)amine 2 with the catalytic amount of Ni(acac)2. Grignard reagent 2 reacted as an AB2-type monomer to give hyperbranched conjugated polymer 3 in a one-step process. Polymer 3 was also obtained via the Pd-catalyzed coupling of N, N-bis(4-bromophenyl)-4-animobenzeneboronic acid 4. Polymer 3 had an average molecular weight of 4.0–6.3×103 and was found to be soluble in organic solvents such as THF and CHC13. A cast film had an anodic peak at 0.95–1.20 V vs. Ag wire. It was dark blue above the oxidation potential and brown-yellow in the neutral state. When polymer 3 was doped with iodine, its conductivity rose to 0.8–3.0 S/cm
J aggregates cyanine dyes have been successfully doped directly in sol-gel derived silicate thin films. The films are transparent, homogeneous and stable at room temperature. The J aggregates successfully incorporated in rigid SiO2 framework were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The films are expected to be useful for non-linear optical devices, multiple photon recording and photoelectric cell.
In this paper, characterizations of sputtered undoped and nitrogen-doped Sb2Te3 (ST and STN) films by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and resistance measurements are described and their application of lateral phase-change memory (PCM) is presented. Nitrogen concentration of the films was controlled by changing the flow rate ratio of N2/Ar during sputtering. Resitivity of STN films drops by 3-4 orders of magnitude due to crystallization. Resistivity increase of the STN film (N2/Ar=0.15) at above 270°C results from phase precipitation of SbN. Experimental results reveal that the temperature of crystallization to face-centered cubic (fcc) significantly increases from below 100°C to 160–220°C with increasing the ratio of N2/Ar (in the range of 0–0.15) and crystal structure further transforms from fcc to hexagonal. At high flow rate ratio of N2/Ar (>0.15), hexagonal Te phase firstly appears at 160°C and then orthorhombic SbN appears at 290°C.
A study of electric-pulse-induced crystallization of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) was conducted by in situ scanning electron microscopy observation and resistance measurement. A lateral phase-change memory with a top GST channel connected by two separate underlying electrodes was adopted in this study to easily observe the crystallization process. At a low voltage pulse, randomly distributed nuclei were initiated. At the first growth stage, these nuclei grew fast with the pulse amplitude at a rate of around 60 nm/V and then growth rate slowed down to around 14 nm/V when the grain diameter was closed to film thickness. Device resistance during crystallization dropped by around one order of magnitude, which should be due to amorphous to face-centered-cubic transition.
We examined 20 300 raw shell chicken eggs sold at retail stores in Japan for Salmonella outside and inside eggs. The eggs were purchased at 220 retail stores throughout Japan between August 2007 and January 2008. Of 2030 pooled egg samples (10 eggs/sample), Salmonella was isolated from five shell samples (0·25%), but not from any of egg-content samples. The serovars of the isolates were Salmonella Enteritidis (2), S. Derby, S. Livingstone and S. Cerro. The samples positive for Salmonella originated from five different egg grading and packaging (GP) centres. All the GP centres washed their egg shells according to government guidelines for hygienic practice in GP centres. Thus, practical control measures at GP centres need to be reviewed and implemented to diminish Salmonella prevalence of egg shells because Salmonella contamination on eggs is a potential hazard for foodborne salmonellosis in Japan.
A neutral beam injection (NBI) into a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is simulated by the electron-fluid and ion-particle method. The neutral beam particle is injected tangentially to the field-null circle, and the simulation is done on a two-dimensional cross section of the FRC. An initial equilibrium state is obtained from the Grad–Shafranov equation including the beam current term. It is found that the start of radial ion flow is delayed by the NBI.