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To investigate the relations between acting the bully, being bullied, seeing someone bullied and depression in children.
108 children (6 to 13 years of age, students of one school - 1st to 7th grade) participated in this study. They completed questionnaires regarding acting the bully, being bullied and seeing someone bullied. The questionnaires include 5 psychological bully questions respectively, and they consist of 15 questions. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) Japanese-version was also completed by the children.
12 children scored 16 or higher on CES-D. The children were supposed depression. 50 children answered “yes” to one or more question of 5 ones with regard to acting the bully. They were supposed acting the bully. 67 children and 75 children were supposed being bullied and seeing someone bullied respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether acting the bully, being bullied and seeing someone bullied were associated with depression.Being bullied was significantly associated with depression [Odds ratio 21.82 (95% confidence limits 1.86-256.20)]. Acting the bully was associated with depression [Odds ratio 4.681(95% confidence limits 0.767-28.580)]. Seeing someone bullied had no association with depression [Odds ratio 0.10(95% confidence limits 0.01-0.74)].
Being bullied greatly affected the emotion. Younger children are said to be more likely to be victims of bullying. Appropriate interventions in the school children are needed.
Studies suggest that psychosocial events (stressors) may play a role in the precipitation of the episodes of Depression. Some individuals become upset by one episode. Others do not feel stress. Such trait affects their feelings.
Subjects are 108 children. They are 6-13 years old. The subjects completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) Japanese-version. They also completed “the Depressive Trait Questionnaire”. It consists of the descriptions of 12 events. Subjects were asked how they concerned themselves about each event, if the events occurred. Subjects marked as follows; 0: not at all, 1: a little, 2: deeply and 3: overly.
108 children completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); mean score: 8.56, standard deviation: 8.87. The scores of CES-D of these children ranged from 0 to 54. Children whose CES-D were 16 and more were supposed to be with depression. Factor analysis was performed on the 12 item scores of “the Depressive Trait Questionnaire”. The items which loaded Factor 1 represent anxiety for interpersonal relationship. The items which loaded Factor 2 and Factor 3 represent the image of loss and the emotion of anger respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, Anxiety subscale was significantly associated with depression (odds ratio 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.17-1.87).
Among children to age 13, high subscale score of Anxiety may increase odds of depression. Anxiety may lead children to depression. It is needed to help children deal with anxiety for interpersonal relationship.
To report a 9-year-old girl with semantic-pragmatic language disorder.
Clinical manifestations and neuropsychological findings of the girl are presented.
The difficulties have occurred in communication. The difficulties have interfered with peer communication since she was a toddler. She cannot find appropriate words to explain what she would like to do or what she had done. She has made vocabulary errors. It is sometimes to say incorrect grammar. She has had difficulty understanding words. Tasks involving memory (e.g., memorizing writing Kanji or Kanji compounds) has been excellent for her. Japanese children are made to study a lot of kanji. Kanji has a complex shape. Though she can read and write Kanji, she cannot understand the words. Qualitative impairment in social interaction or restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior had not been found. She has also short attention span. She had been diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder the Predominantly Inattentive Type when she was aged 5 years.
The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III) was administered to her (FIQ = 103, VIQ = 97 and PIQ = 108). The scores on Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities Japanese-version were substantially below those obtained from standardized measures of nonverbal intellectual capacity. There was a discrepancy between the abilities of verbal and non-verbal semantic comprehension.
Atomoxetin has been administered to her. Her mother and her teachers understood her manifestations. Using pictures or other concrete examples, she has been educated. Gradually, she became to be interested in the meaning of words.
To characterise the dissemination patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a community, we conducted a study utilising molecular and fundamental descriptive epidemiology. The subjects, consisted of women having community-acquired acute urinary tract infection (UTI), were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2012. UPEC isolates were subjected to antibacterial-susceptibility testing, O serogrouping, phylotyping, multilocus-sequence typing with phylogenetic-tree analysis and pulsed-field-gel electrophoresis (PFGE). From the 209 unique positive urinary samples 166 UPEC were isolated, of which 129 were fully susceptible to the tested antibiotics. Of the 53 sequence types (STs), the four most prevalent STs (ST95, ST131, ST73 and ST357) accounted for 60% of all UPEC strains. Antimicrobial resistance was less frequently observed for ST95 and ST73 than for the others. A majority of rare STs and a few common STs constituted the diversity pattern within the population structure, which was composed of the two phylogenetically distinct clades. Eleven genetically closely related groups were determined by PFGE, which accounted for 42 of the 166 UPEC isolates, without overt geo-temporal clustering. Our results indicate that a few major lineages of UPEC, selected by unidentified factors, are disseminated in this community and contribute to a large fraction of acute UTIs.
We report the results of abundance analysis for high-resolution spectra of eight extremely metal-poor turn-off stars selected from SDSS/SEGUE. Based on differential analysis adopting stellar parameters from Balmer line profiles, we obtain the following results: i) Statistically significant scatter is found in [X/Fe] (X=Na, Mg, Cr, Ti, Sr and Ba), among which [Na/Fe] shows an apparent bimodal distribution, ii) Li abundances are ~0.3 dex lower in [Fe/H]<−3.5 than the Spite plateau value without significant scatter.
We previously reported an association between human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) and epidemic myalgia with myositis in adults during summers in which an HPeV3 outbreak occurred in children. However, this disease association has not yet been reported elsewhere. We have since continued our surveillance to accumulate data on this disease association and to confirm whether myalgia occurs in children as well as adults. Between June and August 2014, we collected 380 specimens from children with infectious diseases. We also collected clinical specimens from two adult and three paediatric patients suspected of myalgia. We then performed virus isolation and reverse-transcription–PCR using the collected specimens. We detected HPeV3 in 26 children with infectious diseases, which we regarded as indicating an outbreak. We also confirmed HPeV3 infection in all patients suspected of myalgia. In particular the symptoms in two boys, complaining of myalgia and fever, closely matched the criteria for adult myalgia. Based on our findings from 2008, 2011 and 2014, we again urge that clinical consideration be given to the relationship between myalgia and HPeV3 infections during HPeV3 outbreaks in children. Furthermore, our observations from 2014 suggest that epidemic myalgia and myositis occur not only in adults but also in children.
A dominant astrophysical site for r-process, which is responsible for producing heavy neutron-capture elements, is unknown. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky Way halo provide ideal laboratories to investigate the origin and evolution of r-process elements. We carried out high-resolution spectroscopic observations of three giant stars in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy to estimate their europium abundances. We found that the upper-limits of [Eu/H] are very low in the range [Fe/H] < −2, while this ratio is nearly constant at higher metallicities. This trend is not well reproduced with models which assume that Eu is produced together with Fe by SNe, and may suggest the contribution from other objects such as neutron-star mergers.