To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Using as a starting point the work of internationally-renowned Australian scholar Sam Ricketson, whose contributions to IP law and practice have been extensive and richly diverse, this volume examines topical and fundamental issues from across IP law. With authors from the US, UK, Europe, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, the book is structured in four parts, which move across IP regimes, jurisdictions, disciplines and professions, addressing issues that include what exactly is protected by IP regimes; regime differences, overlaps and transplants; copyright authorship and artificial intelligence; internationalization of IP through public and private international law; IP intersections with historical and empirical research, human rights, privacy, personality and cultural identity; IP scholars and universities, and the influence of treatises and textbooks. This work should be read by anyone interested in understanding the central issues in the evolving field of IP law.
Spectral analysis is widely used to interpret time series collected in diverse areas. This book covers the statistical theory behind spectral analysis and provides data analysts with the tools needed to transition theory into practice. Actual time series from oceanography, metrology, atmospheric science and other areas are used in running examples throughout, to allow clear comparison of how the various methods address questions of interest. All major nonparametric and parametric spectral analysis techniques are discussed, with emphasis on the multitaper method, both in its original formulation involving Slepian tapers and in a popular alternative using sinusoidal tapers. The authors take a unified approach to quantifying the bandwidth of nonparametric spectral estimate. An extensive set of exercises allows readers to test their understanding of theory and practical analysis. The time series used as examples and R language code for recreating the analyses of the series are available from the book's website.
The Germanic language family ranges from national languages with standardized varieties, including German, Dutch and Danish, to minority languages with relatively few speakers, such as Frisian, Yiddish and Pennsylvania German. Written by internationally renowned experts of Germanic linguistics, this Handbook provides a detailed overview and analysis of the structure of modern Germanic languages and dialects. Organized thematically, it addresses key topics in the phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics of standard and nonstandard varieties of Germanic languages from a comparative perspective. It also includes chapters on second language acquisition, heritage and minority languages, pidgins, and urban vernaculars. The first comprehensive survey of this vast topic, the Handbook is a vital resource for students and researchers investigating the Germanic family of languages and dialects.
Total Intravenous Anaesthesia (TIVA) is an innovative alternative to traditional inhalational anaesthesia. Often incorrectly perceived as overly complex, TIVA has numerous advantages over inhalational drugs, such as a lower risk of nausea, less pain and better cognitive recovery. Taking on TIVA is a practical, easy to read and engaging guide to TIVA. It demystifies this important technique and will empower the novice but also support more experienced practitioners. It is a clear step-by-step approach to treating everything from routine elective to paediatric, geriatric, obese and pregnant patients. Pharmacokinetic models, dosage calculations, and the use of TIVA in emergency medicine are also elucidated. Written by international experts in the field with many years of experience both conducting and teaching TIVA, this handbook is an essential resource for experienced and novice anaesthetists alike who want to improve their understanding and confidence with the technique.
Starting as a civil uprising calling for liberal reforms in March 2011, the unrest in Syria rapidly deteriorated into a proxy-led armed conflict involving multiple state-sponsored and non-state actors, including foreign militias and local armed groups. The current state of affairs in Syria, and the uncertainty regarding its future, raise numerous questions for scholars and practitioners of both international law and politics about justice within the context of a changing political reality in Syria. This book contributes uniquely to the scholarship on the Syrian war, raising voices from the Middle East and beyond not often heard within this research context. The volume is divided into three sections: Part I sets the factual and legal framework for the Syrian conflict; Part II focuses on the implications of the conflict for the Syrian neighbourhood; and Part III analyses possible post-conflict scenarios. Together, they address the key themes and questions of the conflicts.
In this book, Katina Lillios provides an up-to-date synthesis of the rich histories of the peoples who lived on the Iberian Peninsula between 1,400,000 (the Paleolithic) and 3,500 years ago (the Bronze Age) as revealed in their art, burials, tools, and monuments. She highlights the exciting new discoveries on the Peninsula, including the evidence for some of the earliest hominins in Europe, Neanderthal art, interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans, and relationships to peoples living in North Africa, the Mediterranean, and Western Europe. This is the first book to relate the ancient history of the Peninsula to broader debates in anthropology and archaeology. Amply illustrated and written in an accessible style, it will be of interest to archaeologists and students of prehistoric Spain and Portugal.
A traumatized airway can be challenging and requires timely intervention. Improper management can result in high mortality and morbidity, especially in the younger age group. Airway injuries in children occur as a result of direct injury to the airway, or indirect, as in anaphylaxis. Direct injury to the airway can be the result of penetrating or blunt trauma to the upper torso (head, neck, and chest).
One-lung ventilation in children undergoing non-cardiac surgery presents unique challenges that frequently require specialized equipment and creative solutions to achieve success. At the time of writing, the infrequency of these cases at any one institution limits our ability to perform prospective trials to compare different devices and approaches. As a result, most of the primary literature on this topic is based on individual experience and cases series. Despite this issue, this area of practice still continues to brim with innovation and creativity with multiple approaches leading to success.
The terms “missed injury” and “delayed diagnosis” have undergone evolution in their academic meaning over the last several decades of trauma care. Missed injury is typically reserved for an unidentified injury for which the opportune moment for intervention has passed. A delayed diagnosis is the term given to injuries not identified on the primary or secondary survey of the initial trauma evaluation. There is obvious overlap in the ways these terms are employed throughout trauma care, and specific institutions may possess their own interpretations. Many emergency medicine texts list a missed injury as one that is discovered after the patient has left the Emergency Department (ED), whether discharged home or admitted. This version of the “missed injury definition” would include possible injuries which were suspected in the ED (not truly “missed”), though not officially found due to appropriate delays in imaging while more acute issues are being resolved in the operating room (OR) or Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The national trauma database of the American College of Surgeons defines missed injury as an “injury-related diagnosis discovered after initial workup is completed and admission diagnosis is determined.”1 Delayed diagnosis was proposed to describe diagnoses that were not found on primary and secondary survey. The tertiary survey was intended to identify many of these injuries,2 though some literature still defines injuries found during the tertiary survey as “delayed.”3,4 In any case, the use of a tertiary survey should be employed in all trauma evaluations, as it leads to a reduction in clinically significant initially unidentified injuries.5 Trauma surgery has also created leveling algorithms based on the mechanism of injury to help activate appropriate resources for trauma patients. Finally, multiple evidence-based decision tools (i.e. Ottawa knee rules, Canadian head computed tomography rules, etc.) exist to help delineate imaging decisions.
From the start of the United States’ violent, forced participation in World War II until the present day, the culture of the US Navy transformed significantly several times. All of these “cultural revolutions” – if we may call them that – influenced how the Navy fought after World War II, in both hot wars and cold. The enduring context of the post–World War II environment was the absence of any overt, large-scale warfare on the seas between the US Navy and the navies of those nations it engaged in limited war (e.g., North Korea, North Vietnam, and Iran), as well as the Cold War with the Soviet Red Banner Fleet. This made assessing the impact of culture on war-fighting effectiveness difficult. It employs the analytical methods of Edgar Schein in looking at the components and dynamics of organizational culture. However, the impact of these cultural changes on the combat effectiveness of the Navy remains opaque given an entire generation has passed since the 1990s. More research remains to be done on how events since the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001 changed the US Navy.
Macro-organisms contribute significantly to soil fertility improvement. The influence of conservation agriculture (CA) in southern Africa on their populations has not yet been fully understood. Thus, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of CA and conventional tillage on below ground biological activity in a CA long-term trial in Monze, Zambia from 2011 to 2013. The study had ten treatments which differed by tillage systems (conventional ploughing, planting basins and direct seeding) and crop diversification intensity (sole cropping, 2- or 3-year crop rotations) involving maize, cotton and sunn hemp. These factors were combined to create rotation-tillage (RotTill) treatments. Sampling of macrofauna was done once per year using a metal frame measuring 0.25 m2, hand-sorted to 30-cm depth. RotTill treatments had a significant effect on earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris), termites (Coptotermes formosanus), dung beetles (Scarabaeus viettei) and centipedes (Lithobius forficatus). Earthworms and termites were more abundant in CA treatments than in conventionally ploughed (CP) treatments. Biota diversity was generally higher in CA treatments than in CP controls. Conventional mouldboard ploughing generally reduced macrofauna, thus affecting biological soil fertility and the beneficial effect of the interactions of these organisms with the soil. CA treatments had the highest maize grain yields throughout the study period. Based on the results, reduced tillage systems and crop rotations increase biological activity shown by increased densities of termites and earthworms.
The current study evaluated growth performance and digestion responses of finishing bulls fed diets containing 825 g/kg flint maize [dry matter (DM) basis] ground to medium (1.66 mm; MG) or coarse particle sizes (2.12 mm; CG), with added monensin (26 mg/kg; DM basis; MON) or a blend of essential oils (BEO) + exogenous α-amylase (AM; 90 mg/kg + 560 mg/kg commercial product, respectively, DM basis). In Expt 1, 256 Nellore bulls were blocked by initial body weight (BW) (360 ± 11.7 kg) and assigned to 48 pens in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Effect of a maize particle size × feed additive interaction was not detected for final BW, DM intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency. The DMI was greater for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON. Final BW and ADG tended to be greater for bulls fed CG than MG maize. An interaction was detected for hot carcass weight which was 11 kg heavier for bulls fed BEO + AM v. MON in diets containing CG, but not MG particle size. In Expt 2, four ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were offered the same treatments as Expt 1, in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. Intake of most nutrients was greater for steers fed CG than steers fed MG maize. In summary, feeding bulls CG maize increased growth performance and carcass characteristics compared with MG. The combination of BEO + AM resulted in heavier carcass weights compared with MON supplementation when included in diets containing CG maize.
Why do we need the real numbers? How should we construct them? These questions arose in the nineteenth century, along with the ideas and techniques needed to address them. Nowadays it is commonplace for apprentice mathematicians to hear 'we shall assume the standard properties of the real numbers' as part of their training. But exactly what are those properties? And why can we assume them? This book is clearly and entertainingly written for those students, with historical asides and exercises to foster understanding. Starting with the natural (counting) numbers and then looking at the rational numbers (fractions) and negative numbers, the author builds to a careful construction of the real numbers followed by the complex numbers, leaving the reader fully equipped with all the number systems required by modern mathematical analysis. Additional chapters on polynomials and quarternions provide further context for any reader wanting to delve deeper.
Dietary protein adjustments can reduce environmental impact and economic losses in production systems. However, we lack information regarding nitrogen (N) metabolism and protein requirements for maintenance of crossbred animals such as Red Norte breed, precluding a precise dietary management. The objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary CP levels (9%, 11%, 13%, 15% and 17%) on intake, digestibility and N balance, as well as to estimate the metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (MPm) of growing Red Norte bulls. Thirty five animals averaging 280 ± 4.0 kg BW were fed during 45 days in a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio diet in which the last 5 days were used for the digestibility trial. Intakes of CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFCs) and feed efficiency linearly increased (P < 0.05) as CP levels increased, while DM, NDF, nitrogen efficiency use and ether extract were not influenced by CP levels (P > 0.05). Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ether extract, NFC and CP as well as metabolizable energy intake linearly increased (P < 0.05), and true digestibility of CP was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Urinary N and retained N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the increase in dietary N. The MPm were estimated as 4.46 g/BW0.75 and the efficiency of use of MPm was 0.673. In conclusion, obtained MPm requirements of growing Red Norte bulls are greater than the values reported in literature for Zebu cattle and dietary CP levels of 15% and 17% exhibited great responses for growing Red Norte cattle. However, a cost-benefit evaluation should be done before its use.
As new cannabis products and administration methods proliferate, patterns of use are becoming increasingly heterogeneous. However, few studies have explored different profiles of cannabis use and their association with problematic use.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subgroups of past-year cannabis users endorsing distinct patterns of use from a large international sample (n = 55 240). Past-12-months use of six different cannabis types (sinsemilla, herbal, hashish, concentrates, kief, edibles) were used as latent class indicators. Participants also reported the frequency and amount of cannabis used, whether they had ever received a mental health disorder diagnosis and their cannabis dependence severity via the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS).
LCA identified seven distinct classes of cannabis use, characterised by high probabilities of using: sinsemilla & herbal (30.3% of the sample); sinsemilla, herbal & hashish (20.4%); herbal (18.4%); hashish & herbal (18.8%); all types (5.7%); edibles & herbal (4.6%) and concentrates & sinsemilla (1.7%). Relative to the herbal class, classes characterised by sinsemilla and/or hashish use had increased dependence severity. By contrast, the classes characterised by concentrates use did not show strong associations with cannabis dependence but reported greater rates of ever receiving a mental health disorder diagnosis.
The identification of these distinct classes underscores heterogeneity among cannabis use behaviours and provides novel insight into their different associations with addiction and mental health.
Building upon the previous work by F. Hueber and U. Outschar,1 this study offers new research on the Sebasteion’s significant architectural refinements, which can be defined as intentional design strategies resulting in minimal deviations from strict rectilinearity, verticality or squareness. The first part of this study identifies where the refinement of curvature is and is not used throughout the Sebasteion complex. A striking pattern of curvature corresponds to the well-documented shared patronage of the complex, demonstrating that the refinement was a choice, not an imperative, for its builders. We also report on a newly-excavated and remarkable example of curvature from the podium of the Sebasteion’s W façade, the Propylon, and for comparison’s sake, curvature in the earlier proskenion of the Theater. Using anastylosis, digital photogrammetry and 3D printing technology, the second part of this article presents new evidence for unprecedented refinements in the Propylon’s aedicular architecture. The plans of the two double-height aediculae and three internal staircases are not rigidly square or orthogonal, as previously thought, but deliberately deviate from having square corners using right angles. After detailed descriptions of these features, several options for their interpretation are presented. Overall, this work brings to light astonishing aspects of the architecture of the Sebasteion, a building already widely appreciated for its sculptures.
Since ancient times, lubricants have been used to reduce friction and wear problems of mechanical systems. However, nowadays, there is a constant effort to improve their performance through additives so that they can accomplish properly in this modern world. In that sense, in this study, it was proposed the use of Poly(ε-Caprolactone) (PCL) as a biodegradable additive in Castor oil. The effect that this additive has on the tribological properties of AISI 4140 steel/Al2O3 tribosystem was analyzed. For this purpose, PCL was dissolved in Castor oil at 65 °C for 15 minutes. Later, once the lubricant formulations got into room temperature, friction tests were conducted with a ball-on-disk configuration. Several experiments were systematically carried out in order to study the factors that could influence the performance of the tribological system, for instance: additive concentration, velocity, temperature, and wear track radius. The kinetic friction coefficient was used to analyze the results as an output variable. The parameters in which the best friction behavior was observed were employed again to compare the efficiency of the polymeric additive by profoundly analyzing and comparing the wear response of the system. The PCL additive showed great results by decreasing friction up to 30% compared to the neat Castor oil. Nevertheless, as the opposite effect, this additive increased the steel wear to almost half an order of magnitude. Given the above, this investigation showed that, with further studies, Poly(ε-Caprolactone) could be used as an additive in vegetable oil-based lubricants for the improvement of friction performance.
Stellarator configurations with reactor relevant energetic particle losses are constructed by simultaneously optimizing for quasisymmetry and an analytically derived metric (
), which attempts to align contours of the second adiabatic invariant,
with magnetic surfaces. Results show that with this optimization scheme it is possible to generate quasihelically symmetric equilibria on the scale of ARIES-CS which completely eliminate all collisionless alpha particle losses within normalized radius
. We show that the best performance is obtained by reducing losses at the trapped–passing boundary. Energetic particle transport can be improved even when neoclassical transport, as calculated using the metric
, is degraded. Several quasihelically symmetric equilibria with different aspect ratios are presented, all with excellent energetic particle confinement.