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A novel multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) fractal antenna excited by a coplanar waveguide was investigated in this study. A novel technique was used to improve the isolation of 20 dB between the dual radiating elements by inserting a strip line into the outer edges of the ground plane. A sunflower structure was used to configure the antenna in three steps. At each step, an additional sunflower structure was added with half the size of that used in the previous step to enhance the impedance bandwidth. The measured values of envelop correlation coefficient and total active reflection coefficient indicated that the proposed MIMO antenna has high-diversity performance between radiating elements. Wide dual operating bands of 2–2.9 and 5–10 GHz were obtained, which can support different wireless communications, such as 3G, LTE (2.6 GHz), WLAN (2.4 GHz/5 GHz), WiMAX (2.4 GHz/5GHz), ISM (2.4 GHz/5 GHz), 5G (5–6 GHz), and satellite communications (6–8 GHz). The MIMO fractal antenna with a small size achieved a maximum efficiency of 85% and a peak value gain of 6 dBi, low-channel capacity loss of 0.15–0.4 b/s/Hz, and high isolation between radiating elements is suitable for portable communication devices.
There have been significant changes in the diagnostic criteria for diffuse gliomas in the 2016 WHO CNS tumor classification, with the incorporation of molecular criteria into a number of definitions. This has placed a greater emphasis on the availability of key immunohistochemical and molecular tests. In order to determine the effect that these changes have had on neuropathology practice and the access of different centres to these tests, we designed a survey that was sent to all members of the Canadian Association of Neuropathology member list in the fall of 2017. This survey asked a number of questions relating to the approach to glioma diagnosis, immunohistochemical/molecular test ordering patterns, in-house test availability, and need to send out for testing. In this presentation we will present preliminary results from this survey, with a focus on institutional testing capabilities. This provides a valuable resource that could ultimately need to a national database of immunohistochemical and molecular test availability for each neuropathology centre.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Review the key molecular markers in the diagnosis of adult gliomas and methods of testing for them
2.Discuss the effect that the 2016 WHO CNS tumor update has had on clinical practice in Canada
This paper describes and analyzes a new technique used in Q-slot antenna to generate circular polarization (CP). The CP characteristics were investigated carefully by studying the surface current distribution, the phase difference between the left hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right hand circular polarization (RHCP) at some resonant frequencies, and the measured values of the axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW). Normal arms (E1 and E2) were cut in the upper elliptical feeding strip line to form an open-mouth structure. The arms E1 and E2 were made equal in length and set perpendicular to each other to have normal electric fields, leading to the generation of CP radiation. A formula was modified for the dual resonant frequencies f1, f2 of the modes TM010 and TM001. The measured values of the ARBW indicated that the antenna has a wide ARBW of 4.8–5.93 GHz, which is approximately 52% of the 3rd operating band of 4.7–6.8 GHz. The wide ARBW in a small size indicated that the design of the Q-slot antenna overcame the limits of designing antennas with wide ARBW in small size and low profile. A formula for normalized field was driven according to the complementary of the Q-slot antenna.
We used a bivariate animal model to investigate the genetic correlations between yield traits or days open (DO) as characters measured in cows and semen production traits as characters measured in bulls. Lactation records of 305-day milk, fat, and protein yields, and DO, from 386 809 first-lactation Holstein cows in Hokkaido, Japan, that calved between 2008 and 2014 were used. Semen production records were collected between 2005 and 2014 and included volume per ejaculate (VOL), sperm concentration (CON), number of sperm per ejaculate (NUM), progressive motility index of sperm (MOT), and MOT after freeze-thawing (A-MOT). Number of sperm per ejaculate was log-transformed into a NUM score (NUMS). A total of 30 373 semen production records from 1196 bulls were obtained. The pedigree file used for analysing the records was involving 885 345 animals. Heritability was estimated for VOL (0.42), CON (0.12), NUMS (0.37), MOT (0.08), and A-MOT (0.11). Weak and negative genetic correlations were recorded between yield traits measured in cows and VOL, CON or NUMS measured in bulls. Moderate and negative genetic correlations were obtained between DO and MOT (–0.42) or A-MOT (–0.43). Selection focused on MOT or A-MOT measured in bulls may therefore improve DO measured in cows.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
The transport equation for the mean turbulent energy dissipation rate
along the centreline of a fully developed channel flow is derived by applying the limit at small separations to the two-point budget equation. Since the ratio of the isotropic energy dissipation rate to the mean turbulent energy dissipation rate
is sufficiently close to 1 on the centreline, our main focus is on the isotropic form of the transport equation. It is found that the imbalance between the production of
due to vortex stretching and the destruction of
caused by the action of viscosity is governed by the diffusion of
by the wall-normal velocity fluctuation. This imbalance is intrinsically different from the advection-driven imbalance in decaying-type flows, such as grid turbulence, jets and wakes. In effect, the different types of imbalance represent different constraints on the relation between the skewness of the longitudinal velocity derivative
and the destruction coefficient
of enstrophy in different flows, thus resulting in non-universal approaches of
towards a constant value as the Taylor microscale Reynolds number,
, increases. For example, the approach is slower for the measured values of
along either the channel or pipe centreline than along the axis in the self-preserving region of a round jet. The data for
collected in different flows strongly suggest that, in each flow, the magnitude of
is bounded, the value being slightly larger than 0.5.
We have achieved a drastic improvement of the performance as thin film transistor (TFT) for solution-processed IGZO thin film by controlling drying temperature of solvents containing the precursor solution. The IGZO-precursor solution was prepared by mixing of metal nitrates and two kinds of organic solvents, 2-methoxyethanol (2ME) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). 2ME was used for dissolving metal nitrates. TFE was added as a solvent for reducing surface tension as small as possible, leading to improvement of the wettability of the precursor solution on the surface of the substrate. In order to discuss the relationship between morphology and drying process, the spin-coated IGZO-precursor films were dried at room temperature and 140 °C on a hotplate, respectively. Annealing of the both films was carried out at 300 °C in an electric oven for 60 min after each drying process. Drying at room temperature provides a discontinuous film, resulting in a large variation of the TFT performance. On the other hand, drying at 140 °C provides a continuous film, resulting in the higher TFT performance and a minor variation. The difference in surface morphologies would be derived from the evaporation rate of the organic solvents. The rapid evaporation at 140 °C brings about rapid pinning of the spin-coated precursor layer on the substrate. Preparation process via the drying at 140 °C gave ∼ 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 of the saturated mobility, quite small hysteresis, and 107∼ 108 of the on-off ratio.
The supposed universality of the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia has been seriously challenged. It is now widely accepted that the life-time prevalence and incidence of this disorder vary considerably in time and place. As a result, there has been renewed interest in environmental causation of schizophrenia. There are few extant formulations that have successfully integrated the available new evidence into a coherent theory for its causation. The outgroup intolerance hypothesis is an attempt to integrate this evidence. It proposes that schizophrenia is the result of a mismatch between the social brain as shaped by evolution and the new social conditions of the post-neolithic. The hypothesis can provide an explanation for (i) the higher risk to migrants, (ii) the ethnic density phenomenon, (iii) the increased risk to individuals who have grown up in cities and (iv) the putative low risk in hunter-gatherer societies. Evidence is presented from a range of disciplines and sources including epidemiology, psychopathology, social psychology and clinical trials in support of this hypothesis. A range of testable predictions follow from the hypothesis.
We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, −0.121 to −0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.
Deformation behaviors of two TRIP-type multiphase steels with different carbon contents were studied by in situ neutron diffraction measurement during tensile deformation at RT. The tensile test was conducted in a step-load controlling manner during the elastic region, and in a continuous manner with a constant crosshead speed by an initial strain rate of 1.8×10-5 s-1 during the plastic region. Austenite grains were observed to bear higher phase stresses than ferrite grains in both steels. Austenite peak intensities started to decrease at the onsets of plastic deformation in both steels, showing the occurrence of stress induced martensitic transformations. Martensite peaks were carefully analyzed to estimate phase strains, and as the results martensite grains were found to bear largest phase stresses during plastic deformation.
We have prepared 2% Al doped ZnO (AZO) thin films on SrTiO3 and Al2O3 substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique at various deposition temperatures (Tdep = 300 °C – 600 °C). Transport and thermoelectric properties of AZO thin films were studied in low temperature range (300 K - 600 K). AZO/STO films present superior performance respect to AZO/Al2O3 films deposited at the same temperature, except for films deposited at 400 °C. Best film is the fully c-axis oriented AZO/STO deposited at 300 °C, with electrical conductivity 310 S/cm, Seebeck coefficient -65 μV/K and power factor 0.13 × 10-3 Wm-1K-2 at 300 K. Its performance increases with temperature. For instance, power factor is enhanced up to × 10-3 Wm-1K-2 at 600 K, surpassing the best AZO film previously reported in literature.
D’ici à 2038, le nombre d’heures de soins non rémunérées aux aînés offert par les membres de la famille devraient tripler. Les membres des familles sont souvent suppliés d’aider dans le processus parce que vivre avec la démence peut inhiber la capacité pour prendre une décision. Cette étude ethnographique a soumis les relations au sein de soins de la démence à domicile à un examen critique par le biais des entrevues face-à-face et les observations des participants des clients, des aidants naturels et des prestataires de soins à domicile. Les résultats ont révélé comment les décisions sont imposées dans le contexte du système de soins à domicile formels, et ont mis en évidence trois thèmes: (1) L’accommodation de la compétence/incompétence, comme définie cliniquement; (2) La prise de décisions inopportunes; et (3) Le renforcement de l’exclusion des déments dans la prise de décision. Ces thèmes illuminent la façon dont les valeurs culturelles (la compétence), les croyances (l’immuabilité du système) et les pratiques (le réglage des décisions) dans le système de soins à domicile sont finalement déterministes dans la prise de décisions pour les déments et leurs aidants. Afin d’optimiser la santé des déments qui se font soignés à domicile, il faut accorder d’attention supplémentaire aux pratiques collaboratives et inclusives des membres des familles.
A high occurrence rate of consanguineous marriages may favour the onset and increased frequency of autosomal recessive diseases in a population. The population of Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil, has a high frequency of rare genetic diseases such as mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, whose observed frequency in this population is 1:5000, while the incidence of this disease recorded in other regions of the world varies from 1:43,261 in Turkey to 1:1,505,160 in Switzerland. To verify the influence of consanguineous marriage on the increased frequency of observed genetic diseases in this population, the population structure and frequency of different types of marriage during different time periods were evaluated. A total of 9765 marriages were found in an analysis of parish marriage records from the city. Over three periods, 1860–1895, 1950–1961 and 1975–2010, the inbreeding rates were 37.1%, 13.2% and 4.2% respectively. Although there was a high rate of inbreeding, endogamic marriages were the dominant marriage type in all three periods. In the most recent period, there was an increase in the number of exogamous marriages and those among immigrants, but most of these occurred among individuals from cities that neighbour Monte Santo. The low rate of migration and high frequency of endogamic and consanguineous marriages show that growth of this population is predominantly internal and could explain the occurrence, and increase in frequency, of recessive genetic diseases in the city.
The ASTEP project aims at detecting and characterizing transiting planets from Dome C, Antarctica, and qualifying this site for photometry in the visible. The first phase of the project, ASTEP South, is a fixed 10 cm diameter instrument pointing continuously towards the celestial South Pole. Observations were made almost continuously during 4 winters, from 2008 to 2011. The point-to-point RMS of 1-day photometric lightcurves can be explained by a combination of expected statistical noises, dominated by the photon noise up to magnitude 14. This RMS is large, from 2.5 mmag at R = 8 to 6% at R = 14, because of the small size of ASTEP South and the short exposure time (30 s). Statistical noises should be considerably reduced using the large amount of collected data. A 9.9-day period eclipsing binary is detected, with a magnitude R = 9.85. The 2-season lightcurve folded in phase and binned into 1,000 points has a RMS of 1.09 mmag, for an expected photon noise of 0.29 mmag. The use of the 4 seasons of data with a better detrending algorithm should yield a sub-millimagnitude precision for this folded lightcurve. Radial velocity follow-up observations reveal a F-M binary system. The detection of this 9.9-day period system with a small instrument such as ASTEP South and the precision of the folded lightcurve show the quality of Dome C for continuous photometric observations, and its potential for the detection of planets with orbital periods longer than those usually detected from the ground.
ASTEP (Antarctic Search for Transiting Exo Planets) is a research program funded mainly by French ANR grants and by the French Polar Institute (IPEV), dedicated to the photometric study of exoplanetary transits from Antarctica.
The preliminary “pathfinder” instrument ASTEP–South is described in another communication (Crouzet et al., these proceedings), and we focus in this presentation on the main instrument of the ASTEP program: “ASTEP–400”, a 40 cm robotized and thermally-controlled photometric telescope operated from the French-Italian Concordia station (Dome C, Antarctica).
ASTEP–400 has been installed at Concordia during the 2009-2010 summer campaign. Since, the telescope has been operated in nominal conditions during 2010 and 2011 winters, and the 2012 winterover is presently in progress. Data from the first two winter campaigns are available and processed. We give a description of the ASTEP–400 telescope from the mechanical, optical and thermal point of view. Control and software issues are also addressed. We end with a discussion of some astronomical results obtained with ASTEP–400.
Indoor radon surveys were carried out in some of the Arab
countries through a Coordination Research Program (CRP) organized
by the Arab Atomic Energy Agency (AAEA). The objectives of the program
aim at establishing a database on indoor radon concentration levels
in the region and investigating any anomalies, where they exist.
The approach adopted by the survey teams to achieve public participation
in accepting the radon detectors in dwellings is presented and discussed.
Most of the participants in the CRP used the passive method (CR-39
plastic detectors) for long-term radon measurements, while others
used charcoal detectors and E-Perm systems for short-term measurements.
The results of the surveys showed that radon concentration levels
in most of the dwellings were low, whilst in some old cities and
in an area close to a phosphate mine the levels were found to be