To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper presents the design and analysis of a wideband X/Ku and Ku band reflectarray antenna. The proposed unit cell of the reflectarray antenna comprises a patch loaded with two distinct slots, viz. a square ring and a cross loop, printed on a low loss substrate, which is backed by a foam-loaded ground plane. The unit cell element offers a linear and large dynamic reflection phase range, which is achieved by optimizing the shape, location, and geometrical parameters of the two slots loaded on the patch. A 324 element microstrip reflectarray antenna of size 200 × 200 mm2 is constructed and analyzed for its radiation characteristics by simulation and measurement. The reflectarray offers a 3 dB gain bandwidth of 50.75% with the operating frequency range of 10–16.8 GHz. It offers a peak gain and aperture efficiency of 25.4 dB and 40% at 12.6 GHz, respectively. The cross-polarization level is below −40 dB over the entire operating frequency range.
Abattoirs are vital for gathering information on animal diseases and protecting the public from consuming infected or unhygienic meat. To assess the major reasons for organ and carcass condemnations and their financial implications, we reviewed 10-year abattoir records of slaughtered bovines between January 2005 and December 2014 at Kombolcha ELFORA abattoir, north-east Ethiopia. Of the 46,913 cattle slaughtered during that period, 17,963 (38.3%) had at least one disease condition. Lungs (10.67%) and liver (25%) were the most affected and condemned organs, followed by heart (1.53%), head (0.56%), tongue (0.17%) and kidney (0.32%). The major conditions responsible for condemnation were fasciolosis (49.89%), hydatid cyst (55.55%), pericarditis (78.2%), hydronephrosis (35.8%), abscess (71.7%) and abscess (43.9%), in liver, lung, heart, kidneys, head and tongue, respectively. The direct financial losses incurred from organ and carcass condemnation over the 10-year period amounted to ETB 1,219,399 (USD 61,946.9), with parasitic diseases such as fascioliasis and hydatidosis accounting for ETB 256,837.5 (USD 13,047.64) and ETB 170,827.5 (USD 8678.23) in losses, respectively. This study describes a significant loss of cheap and reliable sources of protein due to non-utilization of infected organs or carcasses, emphasizing the need to implement integrated approaches in disease surveillance and control programmes.
To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a life-threatening respiratory disease with a high case fatality rate; however, its risk factors remain unclear. We aimed to explore the influence of demographic factors, clinical manifestations and underlying comorbidities on mortality in MERS-CoV patients. Retrospective chart reviews were performed to identify all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-COV infection in Saudi Arabia that were reported to the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia between 23 April 2014 and 7 June 2016. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess the effect of sex, age, clinical presentation and comorbidities on mortality from MERS-CoV. A total of 281 confirmed MERS-CoV cases were identified: 167 (59.4%) patients were male and 55 (20%) died. Mortality predominantly occurred among Saudi nationals and older patients and was significantly associated with respiratory failure and shortness of breath. Of the 281 confirmed cases, 160 (56.9%) involved comorbidities, wherein diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease were significantly associated with mortality from MERS-CoV and two or three comorbidities significantly affected the fatality rates from MERS-CoV. The findings of this study show that old age and the existence of underlying comorbidities significantly increase mortality from MERS-CoV.
Nitric oxide (NO) plays various roles in insect immunity: as a cytotoxic component and as a signalling molecule; and immune-reactive lysozymes (IrLys) provide a first line of humoral immune functions against invading bacteria. Although there is considerable literature on eicosanoid and biogenic monoamine actions on insect immunity, there is no information on the role(s) of these chemicals in inducing NO and IrLys. We addressed this gap by challenging third instar Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy) with the Gram-positive bacterium Micrococcus luteus. Here, we report that bacterial challenge induces elevation of NO and IrLys concentrations in haemocytes and in the fat body. The plasma pool content is comparatively low. Eicosanoid biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) lead to suppression of both NO and IrLys levels. Control larvae have low constitutive levels of NO and lysozyme concentrations. Octopamine (OA) elicits elevation of NO and IrLys concentrations. A similar effect is obtained by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) for NO. These data indicate immune-mediating roles of eicosanoids, OA and 5-HT in NO and IrLys activities.
Wealth index is a known predictor of body mass index (BMI). Many studies have reported a positive association between BMI and socioeconomic status (SES). However, an in-depth investigation of the relationship between BMI and wealth index is lacking for urban slum settings.
To examine the association between BMI and wealth index in an urban slum setting in Nairobi, Kenya.
A total of 2003 adults between 40 and 60 years of age were included. BMI was derived from direct weight and height measurements. Wealth Index was computed using the standard principal component analysis of household amenities ownership. The relationship between BMI and wealth index was assessed using both linear and logistic regression models.
We found that BMI linearly increased across the five quintiles of wealth index in both men and women, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The prevalence of obesity increased from 10% in the first wealth quintile to 26.2% in the fifth wealth quintile. The average BMI for women entered the overweight category at the second quintile wealth status, or the third quintile for the total population.
There exists a strong positive relationship between BMI and wealth index in slum settings. Health promotion interventions aimed at reducing obesity may consider using wealth index in priority setting.
the serene, long strip of the Red Sea, is an artificial
settlement, El Gouna. A carefully tended settlement of
splendor thronged with exquisite and homogenous structures
that reflect, even in their modernity, the ancient Arabian
architecture of near Bronze Age. In its somewhat ambiguous
nature, the new seems to constantly hold on to the old as if
afraid of drowning in the vibrancy of infringing European
civilization. On the faces of things, the battle for
supremacy between the old and the new readily captivates the
senses in the smoking of the old pipe, Shahshi at musical
concerts where American Country music is performed
concurrently with a near perfect mimic, of big time Rap
music, by 50 Cent. In the symmetry that results, the
tenacious dilemma of the old is strung to the new dynamics
of the intra-familiar. This is the El Gouna of the Marina,
which harbours the rich of Europe, and the fleet of holiday
makers that perhaps, not so rich, would work themselves to
the bones back home, for a little feel of the real
experiences that define the realities of the rich people of
this world. Can Doctor Faustus, that ignoble creature of
Christopher Marlowe be blamed for wanting the experience
with Helen of Troy even if it was short lived?
The El Gouna
Marina sprawls at parallel sides like a double-tongued
dragon. On the one side, almost at the demarcating gravel
stones, stands the Mosiaque; a lovely piece of architecture
of modern welfare with Arabian sensibilities. The Mosiaque,
only seven months old is the chosen abode for the six
visiting writers from around the different Continents of the
World; America, Europe, Asia, Australia and good old Africa;
however, two writers could not make the program. The
one-month Sponsorship program offered by the Oracom
Development, a multibillion- pound organization with huge
investments scattered around the world was aimed at
providing writers with writing space to help them complete
In Gouna, as
the locals refer to the serene holiday spot, is a collection
of properties owned by the giant Oracom Development. This
company provided the writers with the opportunity to write
without having to worry about cooking or the making of their
rooms while they were engaged in the tedious activity of
recreating the world.
Symbolism is to
literature what a good wine is to a good dinner. In this
regard therefore, writers have used concrete symbols to
invest things with a representative meaning or have used
artistic methods of revealing ideas or truth through the use
of symbols. Visual and concrete terms can easily represent
abstract terms and thus give form to the formless. Nawal El
Saadawi is renowned for the use of deliberate powerful
diction which often has underlying meanings. This enquiry
examines her language use, especially the recurrent use of
the word ‘eye’ and its varied colours as an indicator to the
central meaning and understanding of two of her novels,
Two Women in One and God Dies
by the Nile. Consequently, it is through the
symbolic presentation of the ‘eye’ that the reader sees the
author's themes unravel themselves.
symbol is said to be a thing that stands for something
beyond itself. This is to say that a symbol must always be
considered beyond its outward presentation. Symbolism has
been defined in various ways. For example, Arthur Symons in
The Symbolist Movement in Literature
refers to it as ‘visual or pictorial’. Robin Mayhead
believes that, in writing, ‘[i]magery is something bodied
forth by the writer's imagination’ (Understanding
Literature: 135). This means that, through
imagination, contrasting symbols and images can be
artistically brought to bear on our reality, thus giving ‘us
a completely new and refreshing sense of the world in which
we live’ (135).
In the same
vein, Fowler sees symbols in literature as attributes of an
object ‘which serve the rational idea as a substitute for
logical presentation, but with the proper function of
animating the mind by opening out for it a prospect into a
field of kindred representations stretching beyond its ken’
(Dictionary of Modern Critical Terms:
William Butler Yeats in The Symbolism of
Poetry (1900) maintains that a ‘continuous
indefinable symbolism’ is ‘the substance of all style’, and
that ‘the excellence of symbol consists in the
suggestiveness that derives from the suppression of a
metaphor's directly apprehensible terms of reference: “as a
sword blade may flicker with the light of burning towers”,
so the symbol evokes unseen worlds’ (quoted in Fowler:
Considered as a less hazardous piezoelectric material, potassium sodium niobate (KNN) has been in the fore of the search for replacement of lead (Pb) zirconate titanate for piezoelectrics applications. Here, we challenge the environmental credentials of KNN due to the presence of ~60 wt% Nb2O5, a substance much less toxic to humans than Pb oxide, but whose mining and extraction cause significant environmental damage.
We agree with Lake and colleagues on their list of “key ingredients” for building human-like intelligence, including the idea that model-based reasoning is essential. However, we favor an approach that centers on one additional ingredient: autonomy. In particular, we aim toward agents that can both build and exploit their own internal models, with minimal human hand engineering. We believe an approach centered on autonomous learning has the greatest chance of success as we scale toward real-world complexity, tackling domains for which ready-made formal models are not available. Here, we survey several important examples of the progress that has been made toward building autonomous agents with human-like abilities, and highlight some outstanding challenges.
Fifteen lactating Damascus goats (44 ± 0·8 kg body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the supplementation of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae at 0 (Control), 5 (Alg05) and 10 g/goat/day (Alg10) for 12 weeks. Chlorella vulgaris treatments increased feed intake and apparent diet digestibility compared with a control diet. No differences were noted in the ruminal pH and ammonia-N concentrations, but increased concentration of total volatile fatty acids and propionic acid were observed in goats fed with Alg05 and Alg10. Diets of Alg05 and Alg10 increased serum glucose concentration but decreased glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and cholesterol concentrations. Additionally, C. vulgaris supplementation moderately increased milk yield, energy corrected milk, total solids, solids not fat and lactose. Feeding Alg05 and Alg10 diets increased milk unsaturated fatty acids with concomitant increases in total conjugated linoleic acid concentrations. It is concluded that the daily inclusion of 5 or 10 g of C. vulgaris in the diets of Damascus goats increased milk yield and positively modified milk fatty acid profile.
Refugees have high rates of mental health morbidity as a result of conflict. However, their needs for mental healthcare and psychosocial support are often unmet, despite the efforts of professional and humanitarian organisations. The war refugee crisis is a global challenge that needs a global solution. We call on all governments, regional and international organisations to take responsible humanitarian actions to intervene and support people affected by these disasters and for all humanity to unite against the forces of injustice and degradation. The thematic papers in this issue report on the Syrian crisis from a variety of perspectives.
The recent influx of refugees and immigrants to Greece has coincided with the ongoing and deteriorating financial crisis. This situation does not allow the Greek authorities to provide help to the desired extent. Yet, the church, local communities, medical societies and non-governmental organisations are offering good psychosocial support. In parallel with support for refugees it is important to provide support for the citizens of the host country. The rich countries of northern Europe should help the poorer countries of southern Europe cope with the refugees. A number of important declarations on refugee mental health and related issues have been produced recently, including the Anti-war Declaration of Athens.
Parasitic infections are among the leading global public health problems with very high economic and mortality burdens. Unfortunately, the available treatment drugs are beset with side effects and continuous parasite drug resistance is being reported. However, new findings reveal more promising compounds especially of plant origin. Among the promising leads are the pentacyclic triterpenes (PTs) made up of the oleanane, ursane, taraxastane, lupane and hopane types. This paper reviews the literature published from 1985 to date on the in vitro and in vivo anti-parasitic potency of this class of phytochemicals. Of the 191 natural and synthetic PT reported, 85 have shown high anti-parasitic activity against various species belonging to the genera of Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, as well as various genera of Nematoda. Moreover, structural modification especially at carbon 3 (C3) and C27 of the parent backbone of PT has led to improved anti-parasitic activity in some cases and loss of activity in others. The potential of this group of compounds as future alternatives in the treatment of parasitic diseases is discussed. It is hoped that the information presented herein will contribute to the full exploration of this promising group of compounds as possible drugs for parasitic diseases.
Common pulmonary vein atresia is a rare and usually fatal congenital anomaly, in which the pulmonary veins come together to form a confluence that does not connect to the left atrium. We report our experience with three cases of common pulmonary vein atresia and review the literature on this anomaly. The diagnosis of common pulmonary vein atresia must be entertained in any newborn that presents with cyanosis, refractory acidosis, and decreased systemic perfusion within the first 48 hours of life. Echocardiography is a useful screening tool, but cardiac catheterisation is the preferred diagnostic tool. Common pulmonary vein atresia can be fatal without surgical intervention, but survival after surgery continues to be poor.
Conflicting reports have been published on the association between Clostridium difficile ribotypes and severe disease outcomes in patients with C. difficile infection (CDI); several so-called hypervirulent ribotypes have been described. We performed a multicenter study to assess severe disease presentation and severe outcomes among CDI patients infected with different ribotypes.
Stool samples that tested positive for C. difficile toxin were collected and cultured from patients who presented to any of 7 different hospitals in Houston, Texas (2011–2013). C. difficile was characterized using a fluorescent PCR ribotyping method. Medical records were reviewed to determine clinical characteristics and ribotype association with severe CDI presentation (ie, leukocytosis and/or hypoalbuminemia) and severe CDI outcomes (ie, ICU admission, ileus, toxic megacolon, colectomy, and/or in-hospital death).
Our study included 715 patients aged 61±18 years (female: 63%; median Charlson comorbidity index: 2.5±2.4; hospital-onset CDI: 45%; severe CDI: 36.7%; severe CDI outcomes: 12.3%). The most common ribotypes were 027, 014-020, FP311, 002, 078-126, and 001. Ribotype 027 was a significant independent predictor of severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53–3.29; P<.001) and severe CDI outcomes (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02–2.85; P=.041) compared with all other ribotypes in aggregate. However, in an analysis using all common ribotypes as individual variables, ribotype 027 was not associated with severe CDI outcomes more often than other ribotypes.
Ribotype 027 showed virulence equal to that of other ribotypes identified in this endemic setting. Clinical severity markers of CDI may be more predictive of severe CDI outcomes than a particular ribotype.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1318–1323
We prove a cohomological property for a class of finite
-groups introduced earlier by Xu, which we call semi-abelian
-groups. This result implies that a semi-abelian
-group has noninner automorphisms of order
, which settles a long-standing problem for this class. We answer also, independetly, an old question posed by Xu about the power structure of semi-abelian
The early Miocene site of Wadi Moghra, Qattara Depression, Egypt, is important for interpreting anthracothere (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) evolution, because the Moghra sediments preserve a higher diversity of anthracotheres than any other pene-contemporaneous site. New specimens from Moghra are described and form the basis for the systematic revision of Moghra anthracotheres provided here. Among the important discoveries recently made at Moghra is the first complete skull of Sivameryx moneyi. Other new specimens described here include two new species of Afromeryx, and a new genus and species, all of which are unique to Moghra. A review of biogeographic information supports the conclusion that three of the Moghra anthracotheres (Brachyodus depereti, B. mogharensis, and Jaggermeryx naida, n. gen. n. sp.) are members of late surviving lineages with a long history in Africa, while three other species (Afromeryx grex, n. sp., A. palustris, n. sp., and Sivameryx moneyi) represent more recent immigrants from Eurasia.