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The use of FDA approved medications for Alzheimer's disease [AD; FDAAMAD; (cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists)] has been associated with symptomatic benefit with a reduction in formal (paid services) and total costs of care (formal and informal costs). We examined the use of these medications and their association with informal costs in persons with dementia.
Two hundred eighty participants (53% female, 72% AD) from the longitudinal, population-based Dementia Progression Study in Cache County, Utah (USA) were followed up to ten years. Mean (SD) age at baseline was 85.6 (5.5) years. Informal costs (expressed in 2015 dollars) were calculated using the replacement cost method (hours of care multiplied by the median wage in Utah in the visit year) and adjusted for inflation using the Medical Consumer Price Index. Generalized Estimating Equations with a gamma log-link function were used to examine the longitudinal association between use of FDAAMAD and informal costs.
The daily informal cost for each participant at baseline ranged from $0 to $318.12, with the sample median of $9.40. Within the entire sample, use of FDAAMAD was not significantly associated with informal costs (expβ = 0.73, p = 0.060). In analyses restricted to participants with mild dementia at baseline (N = 222), use of FDAAMAD was associated with 32% lower costs (expβ = 0.68, p = 0.038).
Use of FDAAMAD was associated with lower informal care costs in those with mild dementia only.
Between 1013 - 1017 Hz the continua of all PG quasars can be described in the most general terms by a model consisting of two broad peaks of thermal radiation. There is no evidence for energetically significant nonthermal radiation in this frequency range in the continua of the PG quasars. We have compiled continuum observations for PG quasars from 6 cm to 2 KeV, including IRAS data for all these objects and new ground-based infrared data at 10 μm for many of these quasars. Sixty-three of the PG quasars were detected by IRAS in at least one band. The overall energy distributions for these sixty-three PG quasars are shown in Figure 1.
Galactic background radiation has been observed in the 78-111 eV Be band using 5000 Å beryllium filters in front of a thin-window proportional counter collimated to a 15° full width at half maximum field of view. Be band data have been analyzed from two sounding rocket flights (Bloch et al. 1986, Juda 1988) that viewed seventeen different directions distributed over the northern galactic hemisphere. In Figure 1 the pointing directions of the two flights are indicated on a map from McCammon et al. (1983) of the 130-188 eV B band count rate.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
We present the characteristics of far-infrared (FIR) brightness fluctuations at 90 μm and 170 μm in the Lockman Hole, which were surveyed with the ISOPHOT instrument aboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), and give constraints on the galaxy number counts down to 30 mJy at 90 μm and 50 mJy at 170 μm. The fluctuation power spectra of the FIR images are not dominated by IR cirrus, and are instead most likely due to star-forming galaxies. This analysis indicates the existence of strong evolution in the counts. Especially at 90 μm, the source density is much larger than that expected from the currently available galaxy count models. The galaxies responsible for the fluctuations also significantly contribute to the cosmic infrared background radiation recently derived from an analysis of the COBE data.
Analysis of the Dutch national invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance data by sex reveals an increase in the incidence of serotype-1 disease in young female adults in The Netherlands after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the national immunization schedule. This has led to an overall increase in IPD in women aged 20–45 years, which was not observed in men of the same age. No other differences in serotype shifts possibly induced by the introduction of PCV7 were observed between the sexes in this age group. Serotype 1 is a naturally fluctuating serotype in Europe and it has been associated with disease in young healthy adults before. It remains uncertain whether or not there is an association between the observed increase in serotype-1 disease in young female adults and the implementation of PCV7 in The Netherlands.