To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Japanese universities are required to improve both international and Japanese students' mental health, because the number of international students increases annually. Moreover, mental health data for graduate school students in Japan are lacking. Therefore, the present study attempted to examine differences in graduate school students' mental health according to major, grade, and nationality.
A total of 587 students from a Japanese university, which only offers graduate school education, completed the Japanese version of Kessler 6 (K6) as part of their regular health assessments; 542 students agreed to the use of their data for research purposes.
The K6 scores were analyzed using a 3-way (major × grade × nationality) between-subjects ANOVA, and a significant second-order interaction (F(6, 518) = 2.68, p < .05) was observed. As a subsequent 2-way (major × nationality) ANOVA, performed according to grade, only showed an interaction for first-grade master's degree students (M1; F(2, 167) = 7.88, p < .01), comparisons between Japanese and international students were made according to major. For one major, Japanese students' K6 scores tended to be higher relative to those observed in international students (t(36) = 1.98, p < .10). In contrast, international students' K6 scores for another major were significantly higher than were those of Japanese students (t(86) = 3.31, p < .01).
Japanese and international M1 students' K6 scores differed significantly. University staff should take these differences into account and examine ways to support students.
The adsorption and desorption of cesium onto layered minerals, zeolite and geochemical reference samples were studied. 0.5 g of bentonite and mica were able to adsorb 71.2 and 51.5 mg of cesium, respectively, from 50 mL of deionized water containing 200 mg/L of cesium under neutral pH condition. These amounts of cesium adsorption were greater than those reported for vermiculites (8.9 and 5.6 mg, respectively). Additionally, the cesium adsorption on mica and vermiculite remained essentially unchanged under seawater conditions, but it decreased drastically on zeolite. The cesium desorption from the layered minerals was promoted by the addition of ammonium ions, namely trioctylmethylammonium chloride and zephiramine. These ammonium ions desorb cesium from the interlayers of the minerals without destroying the mineral structure. The cesium desorption procedure using quaternary ammonium ions would be extremely useful for decontamination of soil containing the layered minerals with adsorbed radioactive cesium.
Wavepackets obtained as solutions of the flow equations linearised around the mean flow have been shown in recent work to yield good agreement, in terms of amplitude and phase, with those educed from turbulent jets. Compelling agreement has been demonstrated, for the axisymmetric and first helical mode, up to Strouhal numbers close to unity. We here extend the range of validity of wavepacket models to Strouhal number
and azimuthal wavenumber
by comparing solutions of the parabolised stability equations with a well-validated large-eddy simulation of a Mach 0.9 turbulent jet. The results show that the near-nozzle dynamics can be correctly described by the homogeneous linear model, the initial growth rates being accurately predicted for the entire range of frequencies and azimuthal wavenumbers considered. Similarly to the lower-frequency wavepackets reported prior to this work, the high-frequency linear waves deviate from the data downstream of their stabilisation locations, which move progressively upstream as the frequency increases.
Insufficient nutrition during the perinatal period causes structural alterations in humans and experimental animals, leading to increased vulnerability to diseases in later life. Japanese quail, Coturnix japonica, in which partial (8–10%) egg white was withdrawn (EwW) from eggs before incubation had lower birth weights than controls (CTs). EwW birds also had reduced hatching rates, smaller glomeruli and lower embryo weight. In EwW embryos, the surface condensate area containing mesenchymal cells was larger, suggesting that delayed but active nephrogenesis takes place. In mature EwW quail, the number of glomeruli in the cortical region (mm2) was significantly lower (CT 34.7±1.4, EwW 21.0±1.2); capillary loops showed focal ballooning, and mesangial areas were distinctly expanded. Immunoreactive cell junction proteins, N-cadherin and podocin, and slit diaphragms were clearly seen. With aging, the mesangial area and glomerular size continued to increase and were significantly larger in EwW quail, suggesting compensatory hypertrophy. Furthermore, apoptosis measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling analysis was higher in EwWs than in CTs on embryonic day 15 and postnatal day 4 (D4). Similarly, plasma glucocorticoid (corticosterone) was higher (P<0.01) on D4 in EwW quail. These results suggest that although nephrogenic activity is high in low-nutrition quail during the perinatal period, delayed development and increased apoptosis may result in a lower number of mature nephrons. Damaged or incompletely mature mesangium may trigger glomerular injury, leading in later life to nephrosclerosis. The present study shows that birds serve as a model for ‘fetal programming,’ which appears to have evolved phylogenetically early.
A new approach is proposed to analyze Bremsstrahlung X-rays that are emitted from laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and are measured by a stack type spectrometer. This new method is based on a spectral tomographic reconstruction concept with the variational principle for optimization, without referring to the electron energy distribution of a plasma. This approach is applied to the analysis of some experimental data obtained at a few major laser facilities to demonstrate the applicability of the method. Slope temperatures of X-rays from LPP are determined with a two-temperature model, showing different spectral characteristics of X-rays depending on laser properties used in the experiments.
Although human paranasal sinuses are critical organs for nitric oxide production, little information is available regarding the role of arginase in alterations of arginine metabolism and nasal nitric oxide levels that may be informative for classifying chronic rhinosinusitis subtypes.
The expression and localisation of arginase and nitric oxide synthase isoforms in paranasal sinus mucosa were examined, and the fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (n=18) and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (n = 27) patients.
Increased arginase-2 activities in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps patients were associated with significantly lower levels of nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients showed significant NOS2 messenger RNA upregulation with concomitant higher levels of oral and nasal fractional exhaled nitric oxide.
These results indicate that fractional exhaled nitric oxide is a valid marker for differentiating chronic rhinosinusitis phenotypes based on a delicate balance between arginase and nitric oxide synthase activities in nitric oxide production.
Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) are both characterized by distorted perception of appearance. Previous studies in BDD suggest abnormalities in visual processing of own and others’ faces, but no study has examined visual processing of faces in AN, nor directly compared the two disorders in this respect.
We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data on 60 individuals of equivalent age and gender in each of three groups – 20 BDD, 20 weight-restored AN, and 20 healthy controls (HC) – while they viewed images of others’ faces that contained only high or low spatial frequency information (HSF or LSF). We tested hypotheses about functional connectivity within specialized sub-networks for HSF and LSF visual processing, using psychophysiological interaction analyses.
The BDD group demonstrated increased functional connectivity compared to HC between left anterior occipital face area and right fusiform face area (FFA) for LSF faces, which was associated with symptom severity. Both BDD and AN groups had increased connectivity compared to HC between FFA and precuneous/posterior cingulate gyrus for LSF faces, and decreased connectivity between FFA and insula. In addition, we found that LSF connectivity between FFA and posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly associated with thoughts about own appearance in AN.
Results suggest similar abnormal functional connectivity within higher-order systems for face processing in BDD and AN, but distinct abnormal connectivity patterns within occipito-temporal visual networks. Findings may have implications for understanding relationships between these disorders, and the pathophysiology underlying perceptual distortions.
The shear deformations of pillared-graphene nanostructures are investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. Slight anisotropy regarding the direction of a shear load is detected. Changing the loading area in graphene and the radius of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) as a pillar, the deformations near the joints of graphene and a SWNT are examined in detail. It is concluded the anisotropy of the shear deformation of the nanostructure is due to the atomic structures at the joints of graphene and a SWNT as a pillar, and the out-of-plane deformations of graphene near the joints dominantly affect the overall shear deformation of the nanostructure.
In this paper, we report the spatial distribution of OH radical density in atmospheric-pressure DC glow discharge using a miniature helium flow and an electrolyte cathode. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging was applied for the measurement of the OH radical density. The effect of collisional quenching was considered in obtaining the spatial distribution of the OH density. The spatial distribution of the OH radical density showed that the peak of the OH density was located at a separated distance from the electrolyte surface. However, the OH radicals kept contact with the electrolyte surface. It was suggested that the OH radicals were generated mainly in a region separated from the electrolyte surface and some fraction of the generated OH radicals reached to the liquid phase.
The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide, including monkeys and humans. Due to its wide host range, it has been suggested that the worm may be transmitted locally to any mammalian host by chance. To investigate this notion, the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA), mainly regions of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2, and a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region of mitochondrial DNA of G. pulchrum were characterized using parasites from the following hosts located in Japan: cattle, sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, a feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The rDNA nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum were generally well conserved regardless of their host origin. However, a few insertions/deletions of nucleotides along with a few base substitutions in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions were observed in G. pulchrum from sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques, and those differed from G. pulchrum in cattle, the feral Reeves's muntjac and captive squirrel monkeys. The COI sequences of G. pulchrum were further divided into multiple haplotypes and two groups of haplotypes, i.e. those from a majority of sika deer, wild boars and Japanese macaques and those from cattle and zoo animals, were clearly differentiated. Our findings indicate that domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles of the gullet worm are currently present, at least in Japan.