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In this paper, a novel single-cavity triangular substrate-integrated waveguide (TSIW) dual-band filter loading a complementary triangular split ring resonator (CTSRR) is proposed, which has three transmission zeros (TZs) in the stopband in total. The dual-band response is achieved by the CTSRR and the degenerate modes of the TSIW cavity. In order to control the TZs, we propose two adjustment techniques, shift feeding technique and adding via perturbation. In addition, the CTSRR etched on the surface can produce a new TZ in the upper first-passband. Finally, a dual-band filter with three TZs is simulated, fabricated, and measured. There is a good agreement between the simulated results and measured ones.
A method for computer simulation of X-ray powder diffraction patterns which are identical to those obtained experimentally is described. The calculated pattern is generated directly from the d's (or 2θs) and intensities of the phase(s) and is based on a profile fitting algorithm which uses the instrument function to form the profile shapes at all reflection angles. Examples of simulated patterns of mixtures, line broadening, linear and amorphous backgrounds, and counting noise are given.
The operation of a new polycrystalline phase identification method using the IBM Series/1 minicomputer is described. Data of the unknown can be entered by automatic transfer of previous runs, stored data sets and manually. Full screen menu selections are provided to facilitate operations and correct entries. Typical S/M time for a multi-phase inorganic mixture containing 43 reflections using a 0.3° window averaged 11 sec per 100 standards and with simple chemical prescreening less than 4 sec including program initialization and calculations of comprehensive figures of merit. Interactive options provide graphics terminal comparison of the unknown pattern with selected standards which appear as diffractometer patterns, subtraction of identified standards from the unknown and others. Utility programs permit storing data sets for later analysis, user created files and a program to display any file standard as a diffractometer pattern.
The integrated and peak intensities of a series of silicon powder samples of various crystallite sizes were measured with a computer automated diffractometer and a profile fitting method (PFM). The accuracy of the PFM was better than 0.003% in computing the integrated intensities. The PFM gave more precise values than would be expected from counting statistics of the peak intensity. The average difference between each measurement and the average intensity was 0.5% with little dependence oo the absolute intensity. Crystallite sizes have a large effect and it is essential to rotate the specimen around the diffraction vector. The best results were obtained with <10 μm particles. Larger sizes decrease the absolute intensities and change the relative intensities. Structure refinement using the POWLS (powder least squares refinement) program showed the presence of (111) preferred orientation even in the <10 μm specimens. R(Bragg) decreased from 4.3% to 0.7% by including the preferred orientation correction in the refinement.
This paper outlines the use of an IBM Series/1 small computer for instrument automation and data reduction for X-ray polycrystalline diffractometry and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The profile fitting method is used to determine 2θ, d and relative peak and integrated intensities in diffraction, and the fundamental parameters method (LAMA program) is used for quantitative analysis of bulk and thin film samples. The methods are precise and rapid.
The combined derivative method (accompanying paper) was tested with a large number of experimental patterns to illustrate its use in various difficult problems commonly arising in peak search analysis of X-ray diffraction data. Patterns obtained with various step sizes, resolution, counting statistical noise, and profile widths were used. The precision in 2θ determination and overlap resolution are in good agreement with those previously obtained from calculated profiles, raise identification of noise as diffraction peaks was eliminated by using a convolution range proportional to the full width at half maximum. Peak search results (both 2θ and intensity) were also compared to those obtained by profile fitting to illustrate the different characteristics of these two methods.
This paper presents a comprehensive study of various applications of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques for the characterization of thin films. With the proper use of x-ray instruments and techniques, a fairly complete understanding of the chemical and physical structure of thin films was obtained. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) method was used for the determination of composition, mass-thickness, and density. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) method was used for structural characterization, including: local atomic arrangements of amorphous materials; phase identification, preferred orientation, crystallite size, stacking faults, microstrain, the annealing behaviors of polycrystalline films; and lattice mismatch between the epitaxial film and its single-crystal substrate.
In order to obtain a clear picture of the capabilities of the x-ray method and the properties of thin films, a series of carefully selected specimens representing a wide range of compositions and thicknesses was used. A number of practical x-ray techniques, which are valuable for this type of analysis, are also introduced.
A precise and practical method for the determination of d-values and lattice parameters from digital diffraction data is described. Systematic errors are corrected mathematically during a d-spacing / lattice-parameter least-Squares refincment process making it unnecessary to use internal standards. X-ray and synchrotron diffraction data of an ICDD alumina plate obtained with a wide variety of experimental conditions and analysis parameters were used to study the precision in the derivation of d-values and the accuracy in the determination of lattice parameters. Results showed that the precision in determining d-values was high with |Δd/d|avg ranging from 2x105 to 4x10-5. Using the results obtained from the high precision XRD analysis as a reference standard, the accuracy in the lattice parameter determinations from the synchrotron diffraction data reached the l-2x10-6] range. Lattice parameters, with an accuracy in the high 10-5 range, were also obtained using parameters commonly used in a routine XRD analysis such as a wide RS (0.11°) for high intensity, peaks only in the front reflection region, no Kα2 stripping, and a Single 2θo parameter for systematic error corrections.
A comprehensive study of derivative methods for the peak search analysis of X-ray diffraction data was made to determine the relative merits of the methods. The peak positions were best determined by the cubic first derivative method which had an intrinsic error ≤ 0.001°, and random error ∼ ± 0.003 ° to 0.02 ° depending on the counting statistical noise. The quadratic/cubic second derivative method had the highest resolution with a separation limit ≥ 1/2w (w = full width at half maximum). An effective algorithm combining the cubic first derivative and the quadratic/cubic second derivative methods was developed for high precision and resolution. The method uses a full screen menu for parameter selection, and the entire peak search analysis including peak identification and position determination, and graphic and numeric display of results at the color terminal is completed in a few seconds using a time sharing mode on an IBM 3083 central processing unit. The combined derivative method should be also applicable to other spectra such as gamma-rays, X-ray fluorescence, optical, infrared, ESCA, Mossbauer, etc.
X-ray diffraction techniques have been used for the structure characterization of Y-Ba-Cu-O and Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O thin films. A powder diffraction analysis of Y-Ba-Cu-O films showed that the films deposited at 650°C on Si are polycrystalline and have an orthorhambic structure similar to that of the YBa2Cu3O7 bulk superconductors. In addition to the conventional powder diffraction technique, both the rocking curve and the grazing incidence diffraction methods were used to characterize a YBa2Cu3O7 film on (110) SrTiO3 substrate. Results showed that the film was epitaxially grown and aligned with its substrate in a true epitaxy. Phase identification and line broadening analyses of Tl-Ca-Ba-Cu-O films showed that the films are comprised of one or more superconducting phases and probably contain stacking faults.
An effective and practical computer algorithm has been developed for rapid and precise phase identification of polycrystalline materials by X-ray diffraction methods using the JCPDS database and/or user created standard files. The entire JCPDS file was reorganized for efficient search. Identifications are facilitated by a number of options: automatic correction of systematic errors using internal standard reflections, selectable window widths for file searching, elemental restrictions (chemical prescreening), handling preferred orientation, match without using intensities, match with 3 reflections, and others. A comprehensive algorithm for calculating a figure-of-merit (FOM) is used so that the “correct” phases can easily be identified with highest FOMs. This method has been tested extensively on a wide variety of analyses and is applicable to either a host or a minicomputer.
The instrumentation developed for poly crystalline diffractometry using the storage ring at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is described. A pair of automated vertical scan diffractometers was used for a Si (111) channel monochromator and the powder specimens. The parallel beam powder diffraction was defined by horizontal parallel slits which had several times higher intensity than a receiving slit at the same resolution. The patterns were obtained with 2:1 scanning with’ a selected monochromatic beam, and an energy dispersive diffraction method in which the monochromator is step-scanned, and the specimen and scintillation counter are fixed. Both methods use the same instrumentation.
Precision X-ray reflectivity data were obtained with a high-resolution reflectometer equipped with a rotating anode X-ray source and Ge 220 channel monochromators (one placed before and the other after the specimen). The surfaces and buried interfaces of thin films were characterized by ieast-squares refinement of experimental data. Values of thickness, density, and/or roughness of Pt “single-layer” and Pt/Co based multiple-layer films were determined.
A method for using synchrotron-radiation parallel-beam X-ray diffractometry for precision measurement of scattering angles and lattice parameters is described. The important advantages of the method are the high P/B made possible by wavelength selection and high source intensity, the symmetrical profiles and the absence of most systematic errors making it unnecessary to use standards. Profile fitting with a pseudo-Voigt function is used to determine 2θ to 0.0001º. The zero-angle correction and lattice parameter were determined from least-squares refinement and the average accuracy of observed-calculated 2θs was 0.0020°. Average values of ∆d/d = ∆a/a directly calculated from the individual hkl measurements ranged from 2x 10-5 to 5.7 x 10-5. The precision estimated from the standard deviation of the mean is in the 10-6 range and 1 ppm precision was obtained for Si. The determination of the exact wavelength selected remains to be solved, but ratios of lattice spacings to standards such as NBS SRM 640a can be determined.
A simplified and effective computer Search/Match method is described in which no more than 12 largest d-value reflections regardless of intensities are used for the Powder Diffraction File standards. A quantitative procedure utilizing the figure-of-merit in the IBM Search/Match method was employed to show the applicability to inorganic, mineral and organic mixtures. The analyses gave the same results as the complete File but the standard databases and analysis time are reduced by about a factor of two. Search/Match without using intensities also gave the same results; this may be useful when instrument geometry and/or preferred orientation cause large errors in the relative intensities. The error limits in measuring the d-spacings were found to vary from ±0.1° to 0.5° (26) depending on the degree of overlaps.
This paper describes a computer method for wavelength dispersive (WD) qualitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. It determines the elements, spectral lines, wavelengths, reflection angles and peak intensities of the first and second order reflections in less than half a minute of time using an IBM Series/1 minicomputer. The resolution and precision are significantly better than the energy dispersive (ED) method and when combined with high speed computer recording the speed is comparable.
The characterization of multi-layer thin films by X-ray fluorescence using the fundamental parameter method and the LAMA-III program is described. Analyses of a double-layer FeMn/NiFe and two triple-layer NiFe/Cu/Cr and Cr/Cu/NiFe specimens show that the complex inter-layer absorption and secondary fluorescence effects were properly corrected. The compositions and thicknesses of all layers agreed to ±2% with corresponding single-layer films, a precisian comparable with bulk and single-layer thin film analyses.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations. Overall, the pooled analysis yielded a statistically significant association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07–1.62). Furthermore, six studies that tested maternal enterovirus infection showed a pooled OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.05–2.27). Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (I2 = 70.1%, P < 0.001) and was mainly attributable to the different study designs, ascertaining methods and sample size among different studies. This study provides evidence for an association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM.
We report on a novel processing route to prepare La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2/Cu bulk composites by low-temperature hot pressing. With increasing copper content, the compressive strength of the composites first decrease and then increase owing to the buffering effect of copper, but the magnetocaloric effect reduces to some extent. Copper addition improves the thermal conductivity of the composites, which compensates for the decrease in thermal conductivity due to porosity. A relatively large entropy change of 5.75–7.19 J/(kg K) at 2 T near the Curie temperature (249 K), good thermal conductivity of 7.51–15.55 W/(m·K), and improved compressive strength of 151.1–248.0 MPa make these composites attractive magnetic refrigeration materials.