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The authors examined the effect of tandospirone on tardive dyskinesia (TD) and parkinsonian symptoms in an open study. Tandospirone did not bring about any favourable effect on TD, but it had a good effect on the parkinsonian symptoms.
We have reported a blood flow increase in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version TMT. Although TMT-A was first performed and followed by TMT-B in the previous study, the order was reversed in the present study,i.e., TMT-B was first performed and then followed by TMT-A, and differences in the change of blood flow were compared between the two modes of TMT.
Nine healthy student volunteers (20.7 ± 1.6 yr) performed two different sets of TMT-B. After a resting period of 30 sec, they performed four different sets of TMT-A. Changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb were monitored by 22-channel NIRS from 30 sec before the start of TMT-B through 30 sec after the end of TMT-A. The mean changes of blood flow over a period of 10 sec just before the start of TMT-B and TMT-A, and over a period of 100 sec after the start of TMT-B and TMT-A were determined.
The increase of oxyHb was prominent in the right lateral prefrontal cortex.
The results suggest that the blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the start of either TMT-A or TMT-B. The location of blood flow increase did not change whether TMT-B was performed first or after TMT-A. Therefore, the blood flow increase observed only in the right prefrontal cortex in the previous study could not be due to familiarization of the test. In contrast, TMT-A apparently exhibits a familiarization effect, since blood flow increase was not observed when TMT-A was performed after TMT-B.
We measured concentration changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version Trail Making Test(TMT) by multichannel NIRS using near infrared light pairs which are more sensitive for detecting changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb.
Sixteen healthy student volunteers performed four different TMT-A sets, and following 30 a sec resting period, two different TMT-B sets. Changes of oxyHb and deoxyHb were monitored by 22 channel NIRS from 30 sec before the start of TMT-A through 30 sec after the end of TMT-B. The mean changes in subjects over a period of 10 sec just before the start of TMT-A and TMT-B, and a period of 50 to 60 sec after the start of TMT-A and TMT-B were determined. OxyHb increased while deoxyHb decreased in the bilateral prefrontal cortices during the performance of TMT. The increase of oxyHb was prominent in the right lateral prefrontal cortex, especially during TMT-A.
On the other hand, deoxyHb significantly decreased in the bilateral prefrontal cortices especially during TMT-A.
The results suggest that blood flow increases in the prefrontal cortex during the performance of the computer version TMT.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
Pneumococcal serotype replacement is an important issue after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in children. After the introduction of 13-valent PCV, the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 12F (Sp12F) have increased in some countries; however, an outbreak of Sp12F has not reported in the post-13-valent PCV era. We experienced a local outbreak of Sp12F during March through May 2016 in Tsuruoka city, Japan after the introduction of 13-valent PCV in 2013. The IPD patients were two children and seven adults, three of whom died with a rapid disease progress. Although the clear transmission route was not determined, eight of the nine patients (89%) had close contact with children, which suggests that transmitted colonisation of Sp12F among children and adults might be the source of transmission. Continuous monitoring of IPDs, along with the determination of pneumococcal serotypes, is warranted in the post–13-valent PCV era. New IPD control strategies may be needed if this fatal outbreak continues to occur.
Comparing two war-related destinations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan, the authors analyse contrasting relationships of memorial and touristic parks presented at the destinations. The authors explore how the memory of the A-bomb tragedy has been constructed, interpreted, and publicised and embedded in war tourism, by examining various tourist materials, including brochures. The findings from the study further our understanding of the complexity of war and tourism at the two destinations. While Hiroshima took a rational and exclusive approach to present the destination as the symbol of national of tragedy, Nagasaki blends the educational component of war memorials in an aesthetic cultural landscape of a historic city. Presenting the city as a tourist destination, Hiroshima centres on the traditional aspect of Japanese culture, while Nagasaki displays itself as a melting pot of multiple cultures. Both cities remain the focal destination for historical education for the young generations of contemporary Japan.
Keywords: dark tourism, heritage tourism, identity, atomic bomb, Japan
In shaping national memories, war-heritage sites potentially function as reminders of the past that can point the way to a better future (Ryan, 2007). Visiting these “dark sites” – former battlefields, war museums, and other places which witnessed death and suffering – has been conceptualised in tourism research as “dark tourism” (Lennon & Foley, 2000). Once dark sites emerge as tourist destinations, death, tragedy, trauma, and pain become part of their brand image. However, the promotional materials that narrate the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and portray the Japanese as victims of the Second World War have not gone uncontested (Siegenthaler, 2002). Debates both inside and outside Japan concerning the country's historical actions and their consequences in the Asia Pacific region generate the need for a re-examination of how Japan's war-related memory is presented. To the outside world, Japan projects the image of a country coming to terms with its recent past. Internally, however, rewriting the constitution to allow a “self-defence” force to be transformed into a mainstream military machine has raised public concern about the nation's unresolved attitudes towards its past military actions (Cooper, 2007). At the same time, Japan has implemented a policy to boost international tourism that raises the issue of how Japan's wartime experience is to be presented to tourists.
Cosmic reionization is thought to be initiated by the first generation of stars and blackholes. We review recent progress in theoretical studies of early structure formation. Cosmic structure formation is driven by gravitational instability of primeval density fluctuations left over from Big Bang. At early epochs, there are baryonic streaming motions with significant relative velocity with respect to dark matter. The formation of primordial gas clouds is typically delayed by the streaming motions, but then physical conditions for the so-called direct collapse blackhole formation are realized in proto-galactic halos. We present a promising model in which intermediate mass blackholes are formed as early as z = 30.
A new species of Roscoea is described and illustrated. Roscoea megalantha Tosh.Yoshida & R.Yangzom occurs in the Eastern Zone of Bhutan and neighbouring Arunachal Pradesh in India. A distribution map and an IUCN conservation assessment are given. A key to the three species of Roscoea found in Bhutan is provided.
In order to investigate the distinguishability about the progenitors of FeCCSNe and ECSNe, we calculate the luminosities and spectra of their pre-SN neutrinos and estimate the number of events at neutrino detectors.
In this paper we present the results of spectroscopic observations for 34 emission-line stars (ELSs) in the Orion belt region, which were detected in an extensive survery. Spectral classification and the intensities of Hα and Hβ emission have revealed that the observed ELSs are probably T-Tauri type stars.
To report magnetic resonance imaging findings in a patient with an SLC26A4 gene mutation who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss.
A 13-year-old girl had bilateral and symmetric low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Upon genetic testing, a heterozygous c.1105A > G (p.K369E) mutation of the SLC26A4 gene was detected. Mild endolymphatic hydrops in the right cochlea and marked endolymphatic hydrops in the left vestibulum were seen by magnetic resonance imaging 4 hours after an intravenous gadolinium injection.
This is the first reported case of a patient with the SLC26A4 gene mutation c.1105A > G (p.K369E) who had low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. Co-occurrence of cochlear and vestibular endolymphatic hydrops suggests an association with that pathology.
Several strategies have been explored from viewpoint of biomimetics to accomplish artificial photosynthesis by using macromolecules as a medium such as liposomes, supramolecules, and hydrogels.1 Differing from disordered solution systems in which multiple components such as photosensitizer and catalytic nanoparticle are diffusively mixed, the photochemical reactions occur efficiently in medium due to maintenance of the dipersibility of the components and specific molecular arrangement. Here we attempt to clarify the effect of medium hierarchy for photoinduced electronic transmission among multiple components. By conjugating each component on tubulin and integrating them via self-assembly to microtubules, ideal component arrangements with optimum distance for the electronic transmission will be possible.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) on board International Space Station is capable of
observing gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and sending notices of GRBs or other transient events,
using real time connection to the ground. MAXI observed 32 GRBs or short X-ray transients
as of the end of September 2012. Among them, eleven events were simultaneously detected by
other satellites. The observed rate of the MAXI GRBs is about one event per month. This
rate is comparable to a past observation with larger effective area and larger field of
view. The fact indicates that MAXI has better sensitivity to observe GRBs because of low
background. The distribution of the spectral hardness of MAXI GRBs is similar to the
results of a past instrument, which is sensitive to similar energy range.
Periodically textured back reflectors with hexagonal dimple arrays are applied to thin-film microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) solar cells for enhancing light trapping. The period and aspect ratio of the honeycomb textures have a big impact on the photovoltaic performance. When the textures have a moderate aspect ratio, the optimum period for obtaining a high short circuit current density (JSC) is found to be equal to or slightly larger than the cell thickness. If the cell thickness exceeds the texture period, the cell surface tends to be flattened and texture-induced defects are generated, which constrain the improvement in JSC. Based on these findings, we have fabricated optimized μc-Si:H cells achieving a high active-area efficiency exceeding 11% and a JSC of 30 mA/cm2.
We have fabricated high-efficiency a-Si/µc-Si tandem solar cells and modules with a very high µc-Si deposition rate using Localized Plasma Confinement CVD to give very high-rate deposition (>2.0 nm/s) of device-grade µc-Si layers. For further progress in productive plasma-CVD techniques, we have studied plasma phenomena by combining newly developed plasma simulation and plasma diagnosis techniques that reveal the importance of non-emissive atomic hydrogen. We also have proposed a model of defective µc-Si formation on highly textured substrates in which the atomic H in plasma is assumed to play an important role. We are also developing a non-vacuum deposition technique that we term “Liquid Si Printing.” A new record conversion efficiency for HIT solar cells of 24.7% has been achieved using a very thin c-Si wafer (Thickness: 98 µm, Area: 102 cm2).