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Epistaxis is the most common ENT emergency. This study aimed to assess one-year mortality rates in patients admitted to a large teaching hospital.
This study was a retrospective case note analysis of all patients admitted to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in Glasgow with epistaxis over a 12-month period.
The one-year overall mortality for a patient admitted with epistaxis was 9.8 per cent. The patients who died were older (mean age 77.2 vs 68.8 years; p = 0.002), had a higher Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatric score (9.9 vs 6.7; p < 0.001) and had a higher performance status score (2 or higher vs less than 2; p < 0.001). Other risk factors were a low admission haemoglobin level (less than 128 g/dl vs 128 g/dl or higher; p = 0.025), abnormal coagulation (p = 0.004), low albumin (less than 36 g/l vs more than 36 g/l; p < 0.001) and longer length of stay (p = 0.046).
There are a number of risk factors associated with increased mortality after admission with epistaxis. This information could help with risk stratification of patients at admission and enable the appropriate patient support to be arranged.
The Assessing and Caring for Patients’ Expectations in Laryngology (‘ACaPELa’) questionnaire was developed to guide laryngology clinic consultations. This study aimed to audit its use, revise it depending on outcomes and validate it.
The questionnaire was completed by all new patients attending a laryngology clinic over one year. The questionnaire was refined and validated in a new cohort of patients over a six-month period.
Thirty-seven of 242 patients (15.3 per cent) incorrectly gave the same ranking to more than one question. Questions with similar content were collapsed to cover broader themes, and an outcome question was added, resulting in the five-item Assessing and Caring for Patients’ Expectations in Laryngology – Revised (‘ACaPELa-R’) questionnaire. Using this revised questionnaire, there was a significant reduction in the number of same-ranked questions (4.4 vs 15.3 per cent; p = 0.003) and high patient satisfaction post-consultation (95.7 per cent).
The Assessing and Caring for Patients' Expectations in Laryngology – Revised questionnaire makes patients’ rank ordering of questions easier. It can be used to inform how different topics should be approached during the consultation and utilised for clinician self-audit.
In Scotland, patients with suspected head and neck cancer are referred on the basis of the Scottish Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer, rather than the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. A chest X-ray should be requested by the general practitioner at the same time as referral for persistent hoarseness. The evidence for this is level 4.
This audit identified adherence to this recommendation and X-ray results. All ‘urgent suspicion of cancer’ referrals to the ENT department in the National Health Service Greater Glasgow and Clyde for 2015–2016 were audited.
Persistent hoarseness for more than 3 weeks instigated referral in 318 patients (15.7 per cent). Chest X-ray was performed in 120 patients (38 per cent), which showed: no abnormality in 116 (96.7 per cent), features of infection in 2 (1.7 per cent) and something else in 2 patients (1.7 per cent). No chest X-ray altered the management of a patient.
Performance of chest X-ray does not alter management and its removal from the Scottish Referral Guidelines for Suspected Cancer is recommended.
Cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea is a rare entity. Only a few cases of spontaneous bilateral cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea have been reported. In all cases, there was a definite time interval between the two (left and right) presentations.
To raise awareness and report on the very rare entity of bilateral spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea.
This paper reports the case of a bilateral, synchronous, spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea in a 44-year-old female. The patient had grommets surgically inserted on two separate occasions for treatment of otitis media with effusion, and received several courses of oral and topical antibiotics. Five years following the patient's initial presentation, a suspicion of concurrent bilateral cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea was raised. The otorrhoea sample collected proved to be cerebrospinal fluid. Cross-sectional imaging revealed bilateral defects in the tegmen tympani of the skull base. She underwent staged middle fossa craniotomies to repair the defects.
Careful observation of the middle-ear fluid characteristics following myringotomy can allow for prompt diagnosis.
Inadvertent (or incidental) parathyroidectomy can occur during thyroidectomy. However, the factors associated with inadvertent parathyroidectomy remain unclear. This study aimed to report the rate of inadvertent parathyroidectomy during thyroidectomy and associated risk factors.
Variables including fine needle aspiration cytology findings, age, sex, thyroid weight, concurrent neck dissection, extent of thyroidectomy, and the presence of cancer and parathyroid tissue within the specimen were recorded for 266 patients. The incidence of post-operative hypocalcaemia was also recorded. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to identify factors associated with inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
The inadvertent parathyroidectomy rate was 16 per cent. Univariate analysis revealed that cancer and concurrent neck dissection predicted inadvertent parathyroidectomy. On multivariate analysis, only concurrent neck dissection remained an independent predictor of inadvertent parathyroidectomy: it was associated with a fourfold increase in inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
The inadvertent parathyroidectomy rate was 16 per cent and concurrent neck dissection was identified as an independent predictor of inadvertent parathyroidectomy.
Unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss due to an infarct in the vertebrobasilar system has been widely reported. Most patients have a background of traditional coronary risk factors related to these cerebrovascular episodes.
A 32-year-old male, a regular user of anabolic steroids, presented to the emergency department with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss and symptoms suggestive of an infarct of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery but in the absence of risk factors for ischaemic stroke.
Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of infarction in the region supplied by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. Polycythaemia was found on haematological analysis, which we believe was secondary to the use of anabolic steroids. The patient was commenced on aspirin as per the stroke management protocol. There was resolution of neurological symptomatology six weeks after the episode, but no improvement in hearing.
To our knowledge, this is the first case report of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss secondary to the use of anabolic steroids causing polycythaemia. This cause should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with sensorineural hearing loss, especially in young males, when no other risk factors can be identified.
Accidental and non-accidental applications of superglue in the ear, nose and oral cavity have been reported previously. Surgical removal of glue from the nose is the current practice.
This paper reports the case of an 18-year-old female, who presented with complete bilateral nasal occlusion due to deliberate self-application of superglue in both nostrils to avoid nasogastric tube insertion.
Removal of glue was accomplished with a combination of local anaesthetic cream and acetone-soaked cotton buds, which caused only minimal discomfort to the patient. All traces of glue disappeared within 10 days, without causing damage to the nasal mucosa, nasal blockage or pain.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of deliberate self-application of superglue in the nose. A successful non-surgical management option for the removal of glue from the nose is introduced.
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