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There are many investigations about thin film. However, these are limited to the surface layer thin film on substrates. It Is very important to know the characteristics of the extremely thin film itself such as surface layer thin film.
In the present paper, the first part deals with the thickness measurements of the surface layer film and substrate by means of x-ray method, and then the measurement method of their stress - strain curves and the procedure of the measurement are described. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of their stress — strain curves.
Many bipolar flow sources have been found around infrared sources with a wide luminosity range. The bipolar sources are thought to be a common stage of early stellar evolution. Recently, compact dense molecular clouds have been detected, just around the exciting infrared sources of several bipolar flow sources (e.g. Torrelles et al. 1983). An investigation of the nature of these surrounding dense molecular clouds should be important to study the acceleration and collimation mechanisms of the bipolar outflow.
We have used the 45-m telescope for mapping two CO broad wing sources NGC 2071 and GL490 with a 15″ beam in the J = 1-0 line. We obtained 250 CO and 130 13CO spectra for NGC 2071 and 150 CO spectra for GL490. The observations were made with the highest angular resolution for the CO line and, as well, cover the whole extent of the outflows. The results reveal significant details of the angular distribution of the CO wings.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
We have made aperture synthesis maps of Orion-KL in NH3(1,1),(2,2) and CS(J=l-0) emissions using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. Both NH3 and CS maps show new detailed structures that have not been recognized before. Two NH3 filaments in the size of ~0.45 pc x0.04 pc are found extending to the northwest direction of Orion-KL. These filaments are associated with the HH objects and the finger-like H2 emissions; they are probably formed through the interaction with high velocity, highly channeled winds from the KL region. The CS maps show, on the other hand, shell structures around IRc2 as well as the well-known rotating disk. These shells coincide with the two lobes of the shock-excited H2 emission, being interpreted as the shock-compressed shells of ambient molecular gas interacting with the outflow from IRc2.
A systematically peculiar molecular composition has been found in a nearby starburst galaxy M 82. Molecules related to grain surface formation and to production reactions favorable at high-temperature are deficient in M 82 among nearby galaxies with rich gas. These molecules are SO, SiO, NH3, HNCO, CH3OH, and CH3CN. Possible reasons for this peculiarity are discussed.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
We report on our growth of superconducting SmFeAs(O,F) films by F diffusion. In our process, F-free SmFeAsO films were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) first, and subsequently F was introduced into the films via F diffusion from an overlayer of SmF3. We performed a detailed comparison of the growth conditions and also the properties of resultant films for fluoride and oxide substrates. The best films on CaF2 exhibited a high transition temperature, Tcon (Tcend) = 57.8 K (56.4 K) at highest, which may exceed the highest Tc ever reported for bulk samples. Furthermore the films on CaF2 also showed high critical current density over 1 MA/cm2 in self-field at 5 K.
Single-crystalline films of superconducting Sr1-xKxFe2As and Ba1-xKxFe2As2 were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The most crucial problem in MBE growth of these compounds is the high volatility of elemental K. The key to incorporating K into films is low-temperature growth (≤ 350 ºC) in reduced As flux. We performed a systematic study of the doping dependence of Tc in Ba1-xKxFe2As2 for x = 0.0 to 1.0. The highest Tcon (Tcend) so far attained for Ba1-xKxFe2As2 is 38.3 K (35.5 K) at x ~ 0.3.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
The Tc of 124 is enhanced by Ca substitution: CaxY(1‐x)Ba2Cu4Oy prepared at 200 bar at 930°C shows Tc = 89 K for x = 0.1. The 124 phase remains stable with Ca substitution at P(O2) ≥ 50 bar. For P(O2) = 2‐16 bar, Ca substitution stabilizes a tetragonal 123 phase CaxY(1‐x)Ba2Cu4Oy, which shows a Tc (87 K for x = 0.2) comparable to that of unsubstituted orthorhombic 123. The synthesis of CaT‐123 has been achieved in oxygen overpressure as small as 1 bar.
After the review of dopant redistribution phenomena observed during formation of near noble metal suicides, we describe the results of our recent experiments to get a better understanding of a mechanism of the dopant redistribution phenomenon in Si substrates. The key factors to understand the dopant redistribution are dopant segregation at the suicide/ Si interface due to lower solubility limit of dopants in suicides, enhanced diffusion of dopants into the Si substrate at much lower temperatures than the ordinary thermal diffusion, and electrical activation of the redistributed dopants. The results of As and carrier concentration measurements before and after Pd2Si formation to make clear the third factor show that the electrical activity of the redistributed As atoms in Si is strongly dependent on the initial activity before Pd2Si formation which is controlled by the temperature for the pre-annealing of As implanted Si.
Shrinkage of extrinsic dislocation loops introduced by As implantation and subsequent annealing have been observed after Pd2Si formation, which is a good evidence of vacancy generation during Pd2Si formation. The role of the vacancies and interstitials on the second factor, the enhanced diffusion, has also been discussed. Finally we list a few issues to be answered in future by more detailed works in order to get a complete understanding of the redistribution phenomenon.
A considerable range in alteration rates of basaltic glasses in various environments has been reported in previous studies. However, these studies paid only cursory attention to the environmental conditions under which the glass had been altered. In this study, the alteration of basaltic glasses was investigated and the environmental conditions and the alteration rate were discussed. Two sample ages were represented: 280 years and 2800 years. Basaltic glasses and their alteration layers were analyzed by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) and the thickness of the alteration layers were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ground water collected near the sampling point of Zunazawa Scoria and the pore water of both samples were analyzed. The alteration temperature and flow rate of water are estimated to be about 13t and 0.2 1/cm2/y respectively on the basis of meteorological data. The alteration layers of young aged basaltic glasses in freshwater conditions are similar to those of leached borosilicate glasses. The alteration rates of these basaltic glasses are estimated to be several um/1000y. The elemental concentrations in the ground water can be roughly explained as the result of leaching of the glasses.
The degradation mechanism of the Schottky contact of Al/Ti/n-GaAs and Al/Pt/Ti/n-GaAs under the heat treatment of 300°C has been investigated. Barrier height of the Al/Ti/n-GaAs Schottky contact degrades drastically after the heat treatment, in which Ti-Al alloy and Ga out-diffusion have been observed. On the other hand, the barrier height of Al/Pt/Ti/n-GaAs contacts is stable under the heat treatment and, Al-Ti alloying as well as Ga out-diffusion in the metals could not be noticed. From these results, it is presumably concluded that the degradation of the Schottky contacts under the heat treatment is closely correlated with the Ga atom out-diffusion from GaAs surface into the metal films after Al-Ti alloy reach to the GaAs surface. The barrier height reduction after the heat treatment can be explained by the formation of the donor type level at the interface due to the Ga vacancy pile-up arose from the Ga out-diffusion. Pt layer was proved to be an effective barrier suppressing the intermetallic alloying and preventing out-diffusion of Ga.
Electrical characteristics of the very thin oxides including oxide films formed in various chemicals were evaluated by means of the ultraclean oxidation system. The very thin oxides including the oxide films formed in H2SO4/H2O2, O3/H2O, and Hot-H2O22 have been found superior terms of reliability to those including the oxide films formed in NH4OH/H2O2/H2O and HCI/H2O2/H2O. The oxide films formed in H2SO4/H2O2, O3/H2O, and Hot–H2O2 have been found to function as the controlled passivation films which suppress increase of surface microroughness when heating of the wafer to thermal oxidation temperature in the inert gas ambience.
Epitaxially grown iron oxide films have been studied microscopically by conversion electron M~ssbauer spectroscopy. Specially designed proportional counters cover a temperature range between 1.75K and 1100K. A 5Å-thick layer containing 57Fe was grown at an arbitrary depth of a 56 Fe3O4 film, even- at the topmost or at the interface with a substrate crystal, to find local properties nondestructively. Temperature dependence of the hyperfine parameters of Bi 3 Fe5O12 films were analyzed to find structural and magnetic effects of Bi3+ in comparison with usual garnets. The Morin transition of α-Fe2O3 was found to strongly depend upon the orientation of films and post-annealing.
We have demonstrated the influence of surface microroughness on the electrical characteristics of MOS devices and investigated the influence of wafer's manufacturing methods, such as Czochralski(Cz), floating-zone(FZ), and epitaxial(Epi) silicon wafers, on the susceptibility to the surface microroughness when some chemical treatment was performed. As a result, it was found that Cz and FZ wafers are very susceptible to the surface microroughness and the amount of the vacancy of Epi wafer is much smaller than that of another wafers. It was also demonstrated that the electrical characteristics of very thin gate oxide films are strongly influenced by the silicon substrate quality. Epi wafer is a strong candidate for fablication of highly-reliable devices on 300mm wafers.
The bulk crystal of silicon germanium was grown by vertical Bridgman method with germanium composition, x, varying from 0.6 to 1.0. The temperature dependent variation of the mobility is indicative of alloy scattering dominantly for the bulk wafer. Phosphorus was diffused in as-grown p-type bulk wafer at 850 °C to form pn-junction, and the diffusion coefficient of phosphorus was evaluated as a function of x. The diffusion behavior of phosphorus in silicon germanium is closely correlated with the germanium self-diffusion with changing x. For specimens with lower content x, P concentration profiles indicated “kink and tail” shape, while it was not observed for higher x. For current-voltage characteristics measurement, an ideality factor was obtained.