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We have made a CO(J=2-1) observations using the Nobeyama 45m telescope aimed at examining the physical properties of the molecular gas in this object. The upper limit obtained is 1.8 mK (3σ) at a velocity resolution of 100 km s−1, which leads to an upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 5.3 × 1011M⊙, if we assume a line width of 250 km s−1 obtained in the CO(J = 5 - 4) line (rest-frame) and the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor of 4.5 (M⊙ K km s−1 pc2). The line ratio between the 2–1 line and the 5–4 line as well as those from the 7–6 and the 4–3 lines (Omont et al. 1996, Nature, 382, 428) imply that the mean gas density is as high as 103–5 cm−3, which is comparable to that in nearby star burst galaxies (e.g., Solomon et al. 1992, ApJ, 387, L55).
We have made a CO (J=2−1) observation using the Nobeyama 45m telescope aimed at examining physical properties of the molecular gas in the object. Upper limit obtained is 1.8 mK (3σ) at a velocity resolution of 100 km s−1, which leads to an upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 5.3 × 1011M⊙, if we assume a line width of 250 km s−1 obtained in J = 5–4 line and the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor of 4.5 M⊙ K km s−1 pc2. The line ratio between 2–1 line and 5–4 line as well as those from 7–6 and 4–3 lines (Omont et al. 1996) imply that the mean gas density is as high as 103–5 cm−3, which is comparable to that in nearby star burst galaxies (e.g., Solomon et al. 1992).
Since the bulk of the energy density of the Cosmic X-ray Background (CXB) resides in the harder energy band than that of the ROSAT band (0.5-2 keV) and since the X-ray sources identified in the ROSAT band have X-ray spectra softer than that of the CXB, investigation of nature of the X-ray sources at the harder energy band is indispensable to solve the origin of the CXB. However, only 2-3% of the CXB in the hard band (2-10 keV) had been resolved into discrete sources (Piccinotti et al. 1982, ApJ 253, 485). We present our preliminary results of optical follow-up observations of the ASCA Lynx deep survey.
We report the results of near-infrared observations of a type-2 QSO, AX J08494+4454 at z = 0.9 which was identified in our optical follow-up observations of the ASCA Lynx deep survey. This object has a hard X-ray spectrum with an X-ray luminosity of about 1×1044 erg s−1 in 2–10 keV. The optical spectrum shows high-excitation and high-ionization lines but no significant broad Hβ emission. These properties strongly suggest that this object is a “type-2” QSO (Ohta et al. 1996).
Δ14C values of leaves of deciduous trees provide a means to map the regional-scale fossil fuel ratio in the atmosphere. We collected a batch of ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, a deciduous tree) leaf samples from across Korea in the month of July in both 2010 and 2011 to obtain the regional distribution of Δ14C. The Δ14C values of the samples were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The average of the Δ14C values from clean air sites in Korea in 2011 measured slightly lower than the average of Δ14C values in 2010. Distribution maps of Δ14C of 2011 and 2010 in Korea were made based on a series of Δ14C values of ginkgo leaf samples from Korea using the Geostatistical and Spatial analyst tools in ESRI's ArcMap software. The distribution maps of Δ14C showed that Δ14C values in the western part of Korea are lower than those in the eastern part of Korea. This is because the western part of Korea is densely populated and contains many industrial complexes, and also because westerly winds from China, containing CO2 from fossil fuel use, blow into Korea. We compared the distribution maps of 2010 and 2011 and tried to find traces of the Fukushima power plant accident in Japan.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Dementia involves a progressive decline in many functional areas. Policy and practice guidelines should cover the entire course of the disease from early detection to the end-of-life. The present study aimed to evaluate the contents of national dementia strategies with a focus on palliative care content.
We employed qualitative content analyses. Sixteen national dementia strategies from 14 countries were reviewed. Using open coding, the contents were compared to the domains and recommendations of the palliative care in dementia white paper of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC).
Although palliative care was not explicitly referred to in eight of the 14 countries and only to a limited extent in three countries, a number of domains from the EAPC white paper were well represented, including “person-centered care, communication, and shared decision making”; “continuity of care”; and “family care and involvement.” Three countries that referred to palliative care did so explicitly, with two domains being well represented: “education of the health care team”; and “societal and ethical issues.” The strategies all lacked reference to the domain of “prognostication and timely recognition of dying” and to spiritual caregiving.
National dementia strategies cover part of the recent definition of palliative care in dementia, although they do not frequently label these references as “palliative care.” In view of the growing numbers of people dying with dementia, preparation for the last phase of life should be added to national strategies.
Cicatricial pemphigoid can affect all mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract; however, hypopharyngeal involvement is less frequent.
This paper presents a 69-year-old male diagnosed as having cicatricial pemphigoid who was experiencing difficulty swallowing. Videofluorography with barium swallow demonstrated narrow flow through the medial hypopharynx, but not through the lateral hypopharynx. Direct laryngoscopy revealed that the postcricoid hypopharyngeal lumen had become narrow due to circumferential scar formation. Interestingly, detached thin membranous webs were observed beyond the circumferential scar.
This report describes important videofluorographic and direct laryngoscopic findings showing rare hypopharyngeal involvement in a case of cicatricial pemphigoid.
We present the results of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory (NRO) M 33 All Disk (30′ × 30′,
or 7.3 kpc × 7.3 kpc) Survey of Giant Molecular Clouds (NRO MAGiC) based on
12CO(J = 1–0) observations using the NRO 45-m telescope and
12CO(J = 3–2) observations using the ASTE 10-m telescope.
The spatial resolution of the resultant 12CO(J = 1–0) map is
193, corresponding to 81 pc, which is sufficient to identify each Giant Molecular Cloud
(GMC) in the disk. We found clumpy structures with a typical spatial scale of
~100 pc, corresponding to GMCs, and no diffuse, smoothly distributed component
of molecular gas at this sensitivity.
We obtained a map of the molecular fraction,
fmol = ΣH2/(ΣHi + ΣH2),
at a 100-pc resolution. This is the first fmol map covering an
entire galaxy with a GMC-scale resolution. The correlation between
fmol and gas surface density shows two distinct sequences.
The presence of two correlation sequences can be explained by differences in metallicity,
i.e., higher (~2-fold) metallicity in the central region
(r < 1.5 kpc) than in the outer parts. Alternatively,
differences in scale height can also account for the two sequences, i.e.,
increased scale height toward the outer disk.
Optical properties of fully-strained wurtzite and zincblende InxGa1-xN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) structures were compared to discuss the origin of exciton localization. In contrast to the hexagonal InGaN MQWs, the photoluminescence (PL) peak energy of cubic InGaN MQWs showed a moderate blueshift with decreasing well thickness, L, and low-temperature PL decay time of the cubic MQWs did not depend strongly on L. The results imply that the wavefunction overlap in cubic InGaN MQWs was not reduced compared to the hexagonal ones, since they do not suffer from the electric field normal to the QW plane due either to spontaneous or piezoelectric polarization. Both MQWs exhibited a large and composition-dependent bandgap bowing, and time-resolved PL (TR-PL) signals showed a stretched-exponential decay even at room temperature. The exciton localization is considered to be an intrinsic property of InGaN.
The effect of YBCO film characteristics on the RF properties of microstrip-line (MSL) resonators using two surface resistance Rs value types of films was investigated in terms of weak links. The films were characterized in both cystallinity and microstructure. The RF properties of the resonators were measured at frequencies of about 2 GHz. It was understood that the film samples with higher Rs at 70 K, which exhibited strong c-axis orientation, both the 90 and 45- degree angle grains in plane of the films, Y211 segregation, and porous structures show large influence on RF magnetic field dependence of normalized resonant frequency-shift Δfc/fc, compared with the lower Rs type. On the other hand, the films with lower Rs at 70 K had much stronger c-axis orientation, the 90-degree angle grains, and dense structures. Consequently, it was considered that the lower Rs type films possessed fewer weak-links compared with the higher Rs type films, suggesting that the misorientation in the higher Rs films result in weak-links.
After the review of dopant redistribution phenomena observed during formation of near noble metal suicides, we describe the results of our recent experiments to get a better understanding of a mechanism of the dopant redistribution phenomenon in Si substrates. The key factors to understand the dopant redistribution are dopant segregation at the suicide/ Si interface due to lower solubility limit of dopants in suicides, enhanced diffusion of dopants into the Si substrate at much lower temperatures than the ordinary thermal diffusion, and electrical activation of the redistributed dopants. The results of As and carrier concentration measurements before and after Pd2Si formation to make clear the third factor show that the electrical activity of the redistributed As atoms in Si is strongly dependent on the initial activity before Pd2Si formation which is controlled by the temperature for the pre-annealing of As implanted Si.
Shrinkage of extrinsic dislocation loops introduced by As implantation and subsequent annealing have been observed after Pd2Si formation, which is a good evidence of vacancy generation during Pd2Si formation. The role of the vacancies and interstitials on the second factor, the enhanced diffusion, has also been discussed. Finally we list a few issues to be answered in future by more detailed works in order to get a complete understanding of the redistribution phenomenon.
SiO2 thin firms were fabricated in a remote electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma by tctraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the silicon source. Oxygen was used as the plasma gas. A mesh was placed between the TEOS gas outlet and the substrate. In the present investigation a-SiO2 films were deposited with and without the mesh and film properties were studied comparatively. The deposition rate increased when the mesh was attached. The optimum deposition rate is observed when the mesh voltage was zero, that is the mesh was grounded. The deposition rates of both methods were also dependnt on the TEOS flow rate, applied microwave power and the substrate temperature. These three parameters have significant roles in controlling the film quality. Good quality SiO2 films can be obtained with a higher deposition rate when a mesh is attached.
Recent advances in understanding the ALE (atomic layer epitaxy) growth of ZnSe, ZnS and ZnTe are reviewed. The Ideal ALE growth is obtained in the substrate temperature range of 250–350°C for ZnSe. In the ALE growth of ZnSe and ZnTe, a unique self-limiting mechanism is observed, in which the deposition rate saturates at 0.5 monolayer per cycle. Furthermore, applications of ALE of II–VI compounds to the growth of strained layer superlattices are also reviewed.
Solid solution films of the σ-Fe2O3-FeTiO3 series are one of the candidates for noble half-metallic oxides. They were epitaxially formed on σ-Al2O3(001) single crystalline substrates by O2 -reactive evaporation method. The Fe2−x TixO3+σ films prepared at higher Ts=973 K and with larger Ti content x≤0.4 had the ilmenite structure with R3 symmetry. Other films at lower Ts or with smaller x possessed the corundum structure with R3c. Only the films with R3 symmetry had large ferrimagnetic moments, though the observed spontaneous magnetization was less than half of the ideal value expected from the fully ordered structure. Room temperature resistivity of intermediate composites dropped to 10−lΔcm due to the formation of the mixed valence states between Fe2+ and Fe3+. However the Fe2+ content of the films was rather small as compared with stoichiometric Fe2−xTixO3. The Ti-rich films had large oxygen nonstoichio netry of about σ=0.3.
We consider nitrogen profiling in oxynitrides to be the key technology for next generation Flash Memories, because of its ability to suppress the generation of traps in tunnel oxides. We are trying to develop an oxynitriding technique for tunnel oxides that uses nitric monooxide. This time, we tried to control nitrogen profile in oxynitrides by using reoxidized oxynitride process. By using a three- step oxidationoxynitridation-reoxidation process, we attempted to systematically tune oxidation conditions, to obtain a satisfactory tunnel oxide/Si interface and SILC characteristics. Highly reliable tunnel oxide for flash memory has been achieved using recently developed reoxidized oxynitrides processing, which is characterized by wet oxidationoxynitridation-dry oxidation. This process yields excellent characteristics, such as low oxide trap formation, low leakage current, and high charge to breakdown (Qbd). This three-step oxynitride process is best suited for flash memories having superior Program/Erase (P/E) cycling endurance and data retention characteristics. In addition, I will propose the optimum conditions for the reoxidation process.
Using EBIC and EDX measurements, CIGS solar cells prepared under several different conditions were observed and characterized. The results of EBIC and EDX measurements suggest that Cd plays an important role in the forming of a buried pn-junction in the CIGS layer via diffusion, and de-emphasize the possibility of the formation of the hetero pn-junction at the CdS/CIGS heterointerface. The correlation of the extent of the space charge region and the observed shift in the pn-junction location with the diffusion of the constituent elements in CIGS was investigated.
Very recently, we have found that the high density 2DEG (ne ∼1021 cm−3), which is confined within a unit cell layer thickness of SrTiO3, exhibits unusually large Seebeck coefficient (S2DEG/Sbulk ∼5). In the optimum, extremely high ZT2DEG of ∼2.4 can be obtained at room temperature, while the effective ZTeff. was only ∼0.24 because 9 unit cells of electrically insulating SrTiO3 layers were used to fabricate the 2DEG structure. Thus, high ZTeff can be realized if the insulating layer thickness is reduced significantly. We selected BaTiO3∼SrTiO3:Nb superlattice to reduce insulating layer thickness because dielectric constant of BaTiO3 is one order of magnitude large (∼3,000) as compared to that of SrTiO3 (∼300). We expected that the conduction electrons can be confined much strongly in the SrTiO3:Nb layer by sandwiching between highly dielectric BaTiO3 layers. As a result, we clarified that the critical BaTiO3 layer thickness is 1.2 nm, significantly small as compared to SrTiO3 layer (4 nm). The BaTiO3/SrTiO3:Nb superlattice films were fabricated by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method on (001)-face of LaAlO3 single crystal substrate at 900°C. During the film growth, we monitored RHEED intensity oscillation to control layer thickness precisely. Out-of-plane high-resolution X-ray diffraction measurements and cross sectional HAADF-STEM observations revealed that the resultant films were high quality BaTiO3/SrTiO3:Nb superlattice. Hall mobility of the SrTiO3:Nb layer was 0.4 cm2·V−1·s−1, while that of superlattice decreased gradually with increasing BaTiO3 layer thickness most likely due to that intra layer diffusion of Ba2+ ion occurred between BaTiO3 and SrTiO3:Nb layers, which was clearly observed by the EELS mapping. Seebeck coefficient |S|300K of SrTiO3:Nb layer was 57 μV·K−1, which corresponds carrier concentration ne of 5×1021 cm−3. The |S|300K value became large with decreasing the SrTiO3:Nb layer thickness (dSrTiO3:Nb) and it reached 305 μV·K−1, which is approximately 5 times larger than that of SrTiO3:Nb bulk. The slope of log |S|- log dSrTiO3:Nb plots was 1/2, suggesting that quantum size effect occurred. Critical BaTiO3 layer thickness for the quantum confinement of the electrons was 1.2 nm (3 unit cells of BaTiO3), which is significantly small as compared to SrTiO3 (4 nm). Thus, BaTiO3/SrTiO3:Nb superlattice would be a promising candidate to realize high ZTeff.
Electroplating of ZnO nanowires was conducted using gold embedded anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) films on Si substrates. For electroplating, insulating layers at the bottom of AAO nanohole structures need to be removed. After electroplating, hexagonal structure of vertical ZnO nanowires was observed, however, they were broken and lied down by thermal annealing process. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated and that of post annealed ZnO nanowires indicates that nitrogen atoms were incorporated as acceptor.