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Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne illness which is more common in populations such as pregnant women, and can result in serious complications including miscarriage, prematurity, maternal and neonatal sepsis, and death in the newborn. Population recommendations exist for specific foods and food preparation practices to reduce listeriosis risk during pregnancy. The aim of the present systematic review was to assess the association between listeriosis and these practices during pregnancy to confirm appropriateness of these recommendations. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science Core Collection, included articles’ references, and contacted clinical experts. All databases were searched until July 2017. Case–control and cohort studies were included which assessed pregnant women or their newborn offspring with known listeriosis status and a nutritional exposure consistent with international population recommendations for minimising listeriosis. Outcomes included listeriosis with or without pregnancy outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed through the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. Results were described narratively due to clinical heterogeneity in differences in nutritional exposures. Eleven articles comprising case–control or cross-sectional studies met the inclusion criteria. Cases of maternal, fetal or neonate listeriosis were more likely to have consumed high-risk dairy products, meat products or some fruits during pregnancy in comparison with women without listeriosis. Cases of listeriosis were more likely to have consumed foods that are highlighted in population guidelines to avoid to minimise listeriosis in comparison with those without listeriosis during pregnancy. Further research is warranted assessing means of improving the reach, uptake and generalisability of population guidelines for reducing listeriosis during pregnancy.
Imaging of active regions in continuum around 1.6 μm shows that many facular regions are less bright than the photosphere when observed nearer to disk center than μ = cos θ ~ 0.75. The contrast of these dark faculae increases with magnetic flux above a threshold of approximately 2 × 1018 Mx. This explains why not all faculae are dark at 1.6 μm, since the magnetic flux density in many regions of bright Ca K plage emission falls below this threshold. After correction for blurring, the typical contrast value is about 4-5%, so the brightness temperature deficit is about 130 K. Faculae are brighter than the photosphere at 1.63 μm nearer to the limb than μ ~ 0.5. The negative contrast of dark faculae may arise from cooling of the surrounding photosphere, or from increased visibility of cool layers of the facular flux tube itself. Quantitative comparison of these IR data with MHD models awaits calculation of flux tube contrasts at realistic angular resolution.
An automated respirometer system was used to measure VO2, protein catabolism as ammonia quotient and the energy budget to evaluate whether the crude protein content of a standard protein (SP) diet (42·5 %) or a high-protein (HP) diet (49·5 %) influences metabolism in rainbow trout under challenging intermittent, low dissolved oxygen concentrations. In total, three temperature phases (12, 16, 20°C) were tested sequentially, each of which were split into two oxygen periods with 5 d of unmanipulated oxygen levels (50–70 %), followed by a 5d manipulated oxygen period (16.00–08.00 hours) with low oxygen (40–50 %) levels. For both diets, catabolic protein usage was lowest at 16°C and was not altered under challenging oxygen conditions. Low night-time oxygen elevated mean daily VO2 by 3–14 % compared with the unmanipulated oxygen period for both diets at all temperatures. The relative change in VO2 and retained energy during the intermittent low oxygen period was smaller for the HP diet compared with the SP diet. However, in absolute terms, the SP diet was superior to the HP diet as the former demonstrated 30–40 % lower protein fuel use rates, higher retained energy (1–4 % digestible energy) and slightly lowered VO2 (0–8 %) over the range of conditions tested. The decrease in retained energy under low oxygen conditions suggests that there is scope to improve the performance of SP diets under challenging conditions; however, this study suggests that simply increasing the dietary protein content is not a remedy, and other strategies need to be explored.
Close binary systems may undergo the “Common Envelope” (CE) phase when the primary star expands on the red giant branch or the asymptotic giant branch. Filling its Roche Lobe, the primary transfers mass to the companion driving it out of thermal equilibrium and causing it to expand as well. The giant core and the companion star become surrounded by a CE. When sufficient energy is deposited in the circumstellar material this will be ejected and the binary orbit will shrink further (see review by Iben 1995). Planetary nebulae (PNe) with short-period binary nuclei are considered the most probable post-CE candidates. Abell 35, Lotr 1 and Lotr 5 (the Abell 35-like objects) are the only three PNe with binary nuclei known to contain a very hot UV-bright primary and a chromospherically active, rapidly rotating, G-K companion that dominates the optical spectrum. The origin of these unusual systems is unclear and hence presents a challenge to theories of binary star evolution. Identified in 1966 by Abell, Abell 35 is possibly the largest PN known (D=1.6 pc at a distance of 360 pc, Jacoby 1981) and also the oldest (the kinematical age is 185.000 years from the small expansion velocity of 4.2 km/s, Bohuski 1974). The bright giant star BD −22° 3467 (mv = 9.6mag) lies off-center within the nebula. A white dwarf was detected at the same location in 1988 in IUE spectra obtained by Grewing and Bianchi. BD − 22° 3467 has a vsin i of 90 km/s (Vilhu et al. 1991), variable Hα and Ca II emission lines associated with chromospheric activity, and a variable light curve (P=0.76 days, Jasniewicz and Acker 1988) probably produced by the rotation of the giant star. All attempts to determine the orbital period have failed, raising doubts as to whether the nucleus of Abell 35 is a close binary at all. In pursuit of this point, we have started a radial velocity study of the giant companion.
Paracelsianism, although consisting of many elements and interpreted in different ways, develops from the thinking of the Swiss German physician, natural philosopher, and alchemist Philippus Areolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, otherwise known as Paracelsus (1493/94–1541). Following an early education that may have included instruction by his father in the transmutation of metals, Paracelsus began a “great wandering” throughout Europe that brought him into contact with both learned and artisanal communities. Around 1515, he may have received a medical degree at Ferrara, although evidence for this is sketchy. Nevertheless, Paracelsus gained a reputation as a skilled physician; his successful treatment of the well-known humanist printer Johann Froben (ca. 1460–1527) may have been partly responsible for his appointment as city physician and university lecturer at Basel. There he lectured in German, rather than Latin, and his strong criticisms of traditional medicine, which included at one point burning books, led to a hostile reaction from other university physicians and forced his abrupt departure from the city. Controversy followed wherever he went, however. Writings regarding the treatment of syphilis, in which Paracelsus recommended the use of mercury rather than medicaments made of Guajak wood, were denounced by the medical faculty at Leipzig whose dean was a close friend of the merchant family Fugger (the family that held the monopoly on the importation of the wood).
In the 1520s and 1530s, Paracelsus composed a series of texts; several of the most famous are the Archidoxis, Opus Paragranum, Opus Paramirum, Grosse Wundartzney, and the incomplete Astronomia Magna. These writings and others, most often written in vernacular German, described the bases of a new medical cosmology reviving an ancient view that connected the universe at large (the macrocosm) with the human body (the microcosm). According to Paracelsus, philosophy, astronomy, alchemy, and the virtue of the physician were the pillars that supported true medicine. The physician as philosopher and astronomer needed to recognize that “the firmament is within man” and needed also to understand how each of nature's parts was designed to correspond to specific parts of the human body. Each individual, Paracelsus claimed, contained in him- or herself all of existence, and amounted to a synthesis of physical body, immortal soul, and sidereal (or astral) spirit. The powers or virtues that operated in the world at large also operated in the body.
Radio interferometric observations of extragalactic radio sources have been made with antennas at the Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts and the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California during fourteen separate experiments distributed between September 1976 and May 1978. The components of the baseline vector and the coordinates of the sources were estimated from the data from each experiment separately. The root-weighted-mean-square scatter about the weighted mean (“repeatability”) of the estimates of the length of the 3900 km baseline was approximately 7 cm, and of the source coordinates, approximately or less, except for the declinations of low-declination sources. With the source coordinates all held fixed at the best available, a posteriori, values, and the analyses repeated for each experiment, the repeatability obtained for the estimate of baseline length was 4 cm. From analyses of the data from several experiments simultaneously, estimates were obtained of changes in the x component of pole position and in the Earth's rotation (UT1). Comparison with the corresponding results obtained by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) discloses systematic differences. In particular, the trends in the radio interferometric determinations of the changes in pole position agree more closely with those from the International Polar Motion Service (IPMS) and from the Doppler observations of satellites than with those from the BIH.
Our previous observations established the small angular size and high brightness temperature of emission from the v=1, J=1-0 transition of SiO from the circumstellar envelopes of the supergiant VX Sgr and the Mira variable R Cas. We performed a second VLBI experiment on the SiO masers in several late type stars on 31 Oct.-2 Nov. 1978 to compare the physical characteristics of the SiO masers in the v=1 and v=2 states. With an energy separation of 1258 cm-1 (an equivalent temperature of 1753 K) between the two vibrational states, differences in excitation and pumping of the maser states may lead to different maser properties.
A number of copy number variants (CNVs) have been suggested as
susceptibility factors for schizophrenia. For some of these the data
remain equivocal, and the frequency in individuals with schizophrenia is
To determine the contribution of CNVs at 15 schizophrenia-associated loci
(a) using a large new data-set of patients with schizophrenia
(n = 6882) and controls (n = 6316),
and (b) combining our results with those from previous studies.
We used Illumina microarrays to analyse our data. Analyses were
restricted to 520 766 probes common to all arrays used in the different
We found higher rates in participants with schizophrenia than in controls
for 13 of the 15 previously implicated CNVs. Six were nominally
significantly associated (P<0.05) in this new
data-set: deletions at 1q21.1, NRXN1, 15q11.2 and
22q11.2 and duplications at 16p11.2 and the Angelman/Prader–Willi
Syndrome (AS/PWS) region. All eight AS/PWS duplications in patients were
of maternal origin. When combined with published data, 11 of the 15 loci
showed highly significant evidence for association with schizophrenia
We strengthen the support for the majority of the previously implicated
CNVs in schizophrenia. About 2.5% of patients with schizophrenia and 0.9%
of controls carry a large, detectable CNV at one of these loci. Routine
CNV screening may be clinically appropriate given the high rate of known
deleterious mutations in the disorder and the comorbidity associated with
these heritable mutations.
The neurocognitive deficits and other correlates of problem gambling are also observable in individuals with lower cognitive abilities, suggesting that a low IQ may be a determinant of problem gambling. There has been very little research into this possibility. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics associated with problem gambling in a large population-based study in England, with a particular focus on IQ.
The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) 2007 comprised detailed interviews with 7403 individuals living in private households in England. Problem gambling was ascertained using a questionnaire based on DSM-IV criteria. Verbal IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test (NART). Confounders included socio-economic and demographic factors, common mental disorders, impulsivity, smoking, and hazardous drug and alcohol use.
More than two-thirds of the population reported engaging in some form of gambling in the previous year, but problem gambling was rare [prevalence 0.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5–1.0]. The odds of problem gambling doubled with each standard deviation drop in estimated verbal IQ [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, p = 0.003], after adjusting for other characteristics associated with problem gambling including age, sex, socio-economic factors, drug and alcohol dependence, smoking, impulsivity and common mental disorders. There was no strong relationship observed between IQ and non-problem gambling.
People with lower IQs may be at a higher risk of problem gambling. Further work is required to replicate and study the mechanisms behind these findings, and may aid the understanding of problem gambling and inform preventative measures and interventions.
The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) by occupation in a representative sample of the English adult population. Another aim was to examine whether the increased risk of CMD in some occupations could be explained by adverse work characteristics.
We derived a sample of 3425 working-age respondents from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007. Occupations were classified by Standard Occupational Classification group, and CMD measured by the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Job characteristics were measured by questionnaire, and tested as explanatory factors in associations of occupation and CMD.
After adjusting for age, gender, housing tenure and marital status, caring personal service occupations had the greatest risk of CMD compared with all occupations (odds ratio 1.73, 95% confidence interval 1.16–2.58). The prevalence of adverse psychosocial work characteristics did not follow the pattern of CMD by occupation. Work characteristics did not explain the increased risk of CMDs associated with working in personal service occupations. Contrary to our hypotheses, adding work characteristics individually to the association of occupation and CMD tended to increase rather than decrease the odds for CMD.
As has been found by others, psychosocial work characteristics were associated with CMD. However, we found that in our English national dataset they could not explain the high rates of CMD in particular occupations. We suggest that selection into occupations may partly explain high CMD rates in certain occupations. Also, we did not measure emotional demands, and these may be important mediators of the relationship between occupation type and CMDs.
Although communicable diseases have hitherto played a small part in illness associated with Olympic Games, an outbreak of infection in a national team, Games venue or visiting spectators has the potential to disrupt a global sporting event and distract from the international celebration of athletic excellence. Preparation for hosting the Olympic Games includes implementation of early warning systems for detecting emerging infection problems. Ensuring capability for rapid microbiological diagnoses to inform situational risk assessments underpins the ability to dispel rumours. These are a prelude to control measures to minimize impact of any outbreak of infectious disease at a time of intense public scrutiny. Complex multidisciplinary teamwork combined with laboratory technical innovation and efficient information flows underlie the Health Protection Agency's preparation for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. These will deliver durable legacies for clinical and public health microbiology, outbreak investigation and control in the coming years.