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This study aimed to present the histopathological and audiological effects of mechanical trauma associated with the placement of a model electrode in the scala tympani in rats, and the effects of continuous topical corticosteroid application.
The study comprised three groups of rats. The round window membrane was perforated in all three groups and a model electrode was inserted in the round window. Group one received no further treatments. Groups two and three also had an intrathecal microcatheter compatible with a mini-osmotic pump inserted; in group two this was used to release normal saline and in group three the pump released 400 µg/ml dexamethasone.
Dexamethasone infusion given after implantation of the intracochlear model electrode was more effective for preventing hearing loss than the administration of just one dose of dexamethasone.
The findings suggest that continuous dexamethasone infusion is beneficial for preventing the loss of hair cells and neurons associated with early and late periods of intracochlear electrode trauma.
The recurrent laryngeal nerve can be injured during surgery. This study investigated recurrent laryngeal nerve reinnervation.
To study the short-term effects of primary anastomosis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, by laryngeal electromyography and histopathological analysis, in a rabbit model.
Twenty Zealand rabbits underwent either right recurrent laryngeal nerve (1) transection with excision of 1 cm or (2) transection and end-to-end primary anastomosis. Vocal fold movements, laryngeal electromyography results and histological changes were recorded.
Vocal fold analysis showed a paramedian vocal fold in both groups, with perceptible vibratory movements in group two. Electromyography revealed total denervation potentials in group one, but denervation and regeneration signs in group two. Histopathologically, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis of the vocal fold mucosa were seen in group one, and signs of parakeratosis and hyperplasia in group two.
Even under ideal conditions for primary recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis, a return to normal muscle function is unlikely. However, such anastomosis prevents muscle atrophy, and should be performed as soon as possible. The degree of nerve recovery is associated with the number, amplitude and myelination level of fibrils returning to the original motor end-plaque.
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