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Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disease worldwide. Adults with mental ill-health smoke tobacco at substantially higher rates than other adults, with public health approaches effective in the population overall having less impact on those with mental ill-health. However, less is known about the tobacco smoking behaviours, attitudes and knowledge of young people with mental ill-health, despite this being the peak period of onset for both mental illness and cigarette smoking.
Young people attending a youth mental health centre (providing both primary and specialist care) in Melbourne, Australia were approached by youth peer researchers and asked to complete a survey about smoking behaviours, attitudes and knowledge. We examined smoking and associated attitudes in the sample overall, and as a function of the services accessed.
In total, 114 young people completed the survey, with 56.3% reporting lifetime cigarette smoking, 42.0% smoking in the last 12 months and 28.6% in the past week. Of current regular smokers, 75.0% acknowledged they should quit in the future; however, only 23.5% planned to do so in the next month, with 44.4% confident that they could quit. Participants lacked knowledge about interactions between tobacco smoking, mental and physical health.
Youth presenting for mental ill-health had high rates of cigarette smoking relative to population rates. Presentation at youth mental health services may represent a critical window for early intervention to reduce the lifetime impacts of cigarette smoking in mental ill-health. Interventions to support smoking cessation in this group are urgently needed.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
Multimorbid adults are more likely to have depression. However, existing data are mostly cross-sectional or retrospective with poor control of baseline depressive symptoms and a focus on long-term effects. This prospective study examined the short-term independent predictive association of multimorbidity with depressive symptoms. We collected baseline and three-month follow-up data from a population-based sample of 300 community-dwellers (aged 18–77) in Hong Kong. Multiple regression was used to examine the predictive association of baseline multimorbidity (two or more physical chronic conditions), relative to having one or zero conditions, with depressive symptoms in three months measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D, out of 60) scale. Multivariable adjustments were made for socio-demographics, baseline CES-D scores, and baseline self-perceived physical health status. A sub-analysis was conducted to compare multimorbid participants with monomorbid (one condition) ones. In our sample, 48 participants (16%) had multimorbidity. Adjusted analysis showed that on average, multimorbid participants had 2.71 (95% CI, 0.36–5.06, Cohen’s d = 0.128) more points in the CES-D scale at three-month follow-up than non-multimorbid participants (zero or one condition) did, which was independent of baseline CES-D scores, self-perceived physical health status, and socio-demographics. Compared with monomorbid participants, multimorbidity was associated with a similar difference of 2.92 (95% CI, 0.81–5.66, Cohen’s d = 0.220) points. Incremental R-square changes associated with the inclusion of multimorbidity were significant (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the effect of multimorbidity on depressive symptoms may take a shorter period to manifest than previously assumed. The mental health of adults with multimorbidity warrants more attention.
We report on the successful search for CO (2-1) and (3-2) emission associated with OH/IR stars in the Galactic Bulge. We observed a sample of eight extremely red AGB stars with the APEX telescope and detected seven. The sources were selected at sufficient high Galactic latitude to avoid interference by interstellar CO, which hampered previous studies of inner galaxy stars. We also collected photometric data and Spitzer IRS spectroscopy to construct the SEDs, which were analysed through radiative transfer modelling. We derived variability periods of our stars from the VVV and WISE surveys. Through dynamical modelling we then retrieve the total mass loss rates (MLR) and the gas-to-dust ratios. The luminosities range between approximately 4,000 and 5,500 L⊙ and periods are below 700 days. The total MLR ranges between 10−5 and 10−4 M⊙ yr−1. The results are presented in Blommaert et al. 2018 and summarized below.
Sea-ice thickness in the Sea of Okhotsk is estimated for 2004–2008 from ICESat derived freeboard under the assumption of hydrostatic balance. Total ice thickness including snow depth (htot) averaged over 2004–2008 is 95 cm. The interannual variability of htot is large; from 77.5 cm (2008) to 110.4 cm (2005). The mode of htot varies from 50–60 cm (2007 and 2008) to 70–80 cm (2005). Ice thickness derived from ICESat data is validated from a comparison with that observed by Electromagnetic Induction Instrument (EM) aboard the icebreaker Soya near Hokkaido, Japan. Annual maps of htot reveal that the spatial distribution of htot is similar every year. Ice volume of 6.3 × 1011 m3 is estimated from the ICESat derived htot and AMSR-E derived ice concentration. A comparison with ice area demonstrates that the ice volume cannot always be represented by the area solely, despite the fact that the area has been used as a proxy of the volume in the Sea of Okhotsk. The ice volume roughly corresponds to that of annual ice production in the major coastal polynyas estimated based on heat budget calculations. This also supports the validity of the estimation of sea-ice thickness and volume using ICESat data.
Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars were discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). A correlation between the energies (E) and durations (t) of superflares is derived as t∝E0.39, and this can be theoretically explained by magnetic reconnection (t∝E1/3). In this study, we carried out a statistical research on 50 solar WLFs with SDO/HMI to examine the t-E relation. As a result, the t-E relation on solar WLFs (t∝E0.38) is quite similar stellar superflares, but the durations of stellar superflares are much shorter than those extrapolated from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations; (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WL emission may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time can be determined by the cooling timescale; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law t∝E1/3B−5/3 derived from the magnetic reconnection theory.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
This article documents the development of a community-based drug intervention for low- to mild-risk drug users who surrendered as part of the Philippine government's anti-drug campaign. It highlights the importance of developing evidence-informed drug recovery interventions that are appropriate to the Asian culture and to developing economies. Interviews and consultations with users and community stakeholders reveal the need for an intervention that would improve the drug recovery skills and life skills of users. Evidence-based interventions were adapted using McKleroy and colleagues’ (2006) Map of Adaptation Process (MAP) framework. The resulting intervention reflected the country's collectivist culture, relational values, propensity for indirect and non-verbal communication, and interdependent self-construal. The use of small groups, interactive and creative methodologies, and the incorporation of music and prayer also recognised the importance of these in the Philippine culture.
A novel method to generate shock waves in small tubes is demonstrated. A femtosecond laser is applied to generate an optical breakdown an aluminum film as target. Due to the sudden appearance of this non-equilibrium state of the target, a shock wave is induced. The shock wave is further driven by the expanding high-pressure plasma (up to 10 Mbar), which serves as a quasi-piston, until the plasma recombines. The shock wave then propagates further into a glass capillary (different square capillaries with hydraulic diameter D down to 50 µm are applied). Shock wave propagation is investigated by laser interferometry. Although the plasma is an unsteady driver, due to the geometrical confinement of the capillaries, rather strong micro shocks can still propagate as far as 35 times D. In addition to the experiments, the initial conditions of this novel method are investigated by hydrocode simulations using MULTI-fs.
We report a novel approach to the instantaneous photoinitiated synthesis of mixed anatase-rutile nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films with a three-dimensional nanostructure through pulsed white light irradiation of photosensitive Ti-organic precursor films. Pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis accompanied by instantaneous self-assembly and crystallization occurred to form graphitic oxides-coated TiO2 nanograins. Subsequent pulsed light irradiation working as in situ pulsed photothermal treatment improved the crystalline quality of TiO2 film despite its low attenuation of light. The non-radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 nanograins, coupled with inefficient heat dissipation due to low thermal conductivity, produces enough heat to provide the thermodynamic driving force for improving the crystalline quality. The graphitic oxides were reduced by pulsed photothermal treatment and can be completely removed by oxygen plasma cleaning. This photoinitiated nanofabrication technology opens a promising way for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxides as well as TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films.
To improve compliance with hand hygiene, a novel method with inclusion of an online reporting system was developed, comprising measurement of total hand bioburden, anonymous online feedback, and onsite training. The intervention significantly improved both compliance and quality of hand hygiene and reduced Staphylococcus aureus incidence.
Large volumes of data and multiple computing platforms are now universal components of paediatric cardiovascular medicine, but are in a constant state of evolution. Often, multiple sets of related data reside in disconnected “silos”, resulting in clinical, administrative, and research activities that may be duplicative, inefficient, and at times inaccurate. Comprehensive and integrated data solutions are needed to facilitate these activities across congenital heart centres. We describe methodology, key considerations, successful use cases, and lessons learnt in developing an integrated data platform across our congenital heart centre.
Travelling disturbances in the solar corona with velocities ~103 km/s manifest themselves at radio frequencies by two distinctive phenomena—the type II burst, the spectrum of which shows a slow frequency drift that corresponds to quasi-radial outward motion, and the moving type IV burst, for which positional observations show transverse motion directly. A close relation between the two phenomena has long been suspected, and each type has separately been ascribed to a shock wave disturbance. In this paper we summarize three events recorded by the Culgoora radioheliograph and spectograph (two in the course of publication and one unpublished) in each of which a type II and a moving type IV burst can be consistently attributed to the effects of a common shock wave.
During the last solar cycle a number of observations of solar radio emissions were made in a wide frequency range from which an enormous amount of information has been obtained. However the results obtained so far are limited by rather poor angular resolution. Observations with much higher resolution (of the order of 1′ arc) have been required for further studies of solar radio emissions. At the present stage such observations have proceeded in the microwave range; also the radioheliograph at 80 MHz has just started at the Culgoora Observatory. At the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory a high-resolution study of radio bursts in the metre-wave range has been planned since 1960, and the construction of a new compound interferometer operating at 160.3 MHz was started in April 1967 at a new site, Nobeyama. This site, located about 150 km north-west of Tokyo, is surrounded by mountains and quite free from man-made interference. We shall give a brief description of this equipment; details will be published later.
The number of food hubs—businesses that aggregate and distribute local food—in the United States is growing, fueled in part by increasing public support. However, there have been few data-driven assessments of the economic impacts of these ventures. Using an input-output-based methodology and a unique data set from a successful food hub, we measure net and gross impacts of a policy supporting their development. We estimate a gross output multiplier of 1.75 and an employment multiplier of 2.14. Using customer surveys, we estimate that every $1 increase in final demand for food hub products generates a $0.11 reduction in purchases in other sectors.