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To describe the clinical features of head and neck tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Retrospective, observational study.
The study included 358 patients who received a histopathologically and/or microbiologically confirmed diagnosis of tuberculosis in the head and neck region between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011.
A total of 358 new cases of head and neck tuberculosis were identified during the study period, involving 196 males (54.7 per cent) and 162 females (45.3 per cent). These patients had a median age of 31 years (range, 3 months to 83 years). Testing for human immunodeficiency virus was positive in 233 (65.1 per cent) and negative in 125 (34.9 per cent). Right-sided cervical lymphadenitis was the commonest form of presentation of head and neck tuberculosis.
In this study, right-sided cervical lymphadenopathy was the commonest presentation of head and neck tuberculosis in both human immunodeficiency virus infected and non-infected individuals. Head and neck tuberculosis should not be excluded solely based on a normal chest X-ray, nor on the absence of constitutional symptoms.
Myopericytoma is a relatively recently described skin and soft tissue tumour that demonstrates perivascular myoid cell or pericytic differentiation. Whilst the range of anatomical locations has expanded to include visceral locations, head and neck myopericytomas are rarely documented. There have been no previous reports of aural myopericytoma.
This paper reports the clinicopathological features of a biopsy-proven, slow-growing, 20 × 20 mm, polypoid myopericytoma that involved the external auditory canal and tragus in an 18-year-old woman. Excision was curative.
Heightened clinicopathological awareness of the expanding anatomical distribution of myopericytoma is critical to its diagnosis when it presents in unusual and novel locations. Myopericytoma should be added to the range of external auditory canal neoplasms, especially those characterised by an admixture of spindle cells and a prominence of blood vessels, including those with a haemangiopericytomatous pattern.
This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of submandibular gland metastases in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.
Sixty-nine patients treated between 1 January 2004 and 30 June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were treated with wide local excision of the primary tumour, plus simultaneous neck dissection and reconstruction if required.
Of 69 submandibular glands from 46 men and 23 women (mean age, 58 years), 43 (62.3 per cent) had advanced, tumour stage three or four lesions. Histopathological reappraisal of all submandibular glands demonstrated an absence of metastatic spread. Only 2/69 (2.9 per cent) submandibular glands demonstrated ipsilateral contiguous tumour involvement.
This study demonstrated an absence of metastasis to the submandibular gland from oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Patients with early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and with a pre-operative node stage zero neck may be candidates for preservation of the submandibular gland during neck dissection.
Patients with schizophrenia differ from controls in several measures of brain structure and function, but it is uncertain how these relate to clinical features of the illness. We dichotomised patient groups by treatment response to test the hypothesis that treatment-resistant patients exhibit more marked biological abnormalities than treatment-responsive parients.
Twenty treatment-responsive and 20 treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age, and illness duration, were compared by magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission tomography, and detailed neuropsychological assessment.
Brain-imaging variables were not statistically related to treatment response, although poorly responsive patients had lower volumes of most brain structures. Several highly significant differences emerged between patient groups on neuropsychological testing. Episodic memory functioning distinguished patient groups even after we controlled for global cognitive impairment.
Cerebral structure and blood flow have a limited effect on treatment response in schizophrenia, but long-term episodic memory impairment is associated with, and may predict, poor prognosis.
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