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Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 at Clinton, NC, to quantify the effects of season-long interference of large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) on ‘AG6536’ soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Weed density treatments consisted of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 plants m−2 for A. palmeri and 0, 1, 2, 4, and 16 plants m−2 for D. sanguinalis with (interspecific interference) and without (intraspecific interference) soybean to determine the impacts on weed biomass, soybean biomass, and seed yield. Biomass per square meter increased with increasing weed density for both weed species with and without soybean present. Biomass per square meter of D. sanguinalis was 617% and 37% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean, for 1 and 16 plants m−2 respectively. Biomass per square meter of A. palmeri was 272% and 115% greater when grown without soybean than with soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant for D. sanguinalis and A. palmeri grown without soybean was greatest at the 1 plant m−2 density. Biomass per plant of D. sanguinalis plants across measured densities was 33% to 83% greater when grown without soybean compared with biomass per plant when soybean was present for 1 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. Similarly, biomass per plant for A. palmeri was 56% to 74% greater when grown without soybean for 1 and 8 plants m−2, respectively. Biomass per plant of either weed species was not affected by weed density when grown with soybean due to interspecific competition with soybean. Yield loss for soybean grown with A. palmeri ranged from 14% to 37% for densities of 1 to 8 plants m−2, respectively, with a maximum yield loss estimate of 49%. Similarly, predicted loss for soybean grown with D. sanguinalis was 0 % to 37% for densities of 1 to 16 m−2 with a maximum yield loss estimate of 50%. Soybean biomass was not affected by weed species or density. Results from these studies indicate that A. palmeri is more competitive than D. sanguinalis at lower densities, but that similar yield loss can occur when densities greater than 4 plants m−2 of either weed are present.
Field studies were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Clinton, NC, to determine the interspecific and intraspecific interference of Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) or large crabgrass [Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in ‘Covington’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Amaranthus palmeri and D. sanguinalis were established 1 d after sweetpotato transplanting and maintained season-long at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 0, 1, 2, 4, 16 plants m−1 of row in the presence and absence of sweetpotato, respectively. Predicted yield loss for sweetpotato was 35% to 76% for D. sanguinalis at 1 to 16 plants m−1 of row and 50% to 79% for A. palmeri at 1 to 8 plants m−1 of row. Weed dry biomass per meter of row increased linearly with increasing weed density. Individual dry biomass of A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis was not affected by weed density when grown in the presence of sweetpotato. When grown without sweetpotato, individual weed dry biomass decreased 71% and 62% from 1 to 4 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively. Individual weed dry biomass was not affected above 4 plants m−1 row to the highest densities of 8 and 16 plants m−1 row for A. palmeri and D. sanguinalis, respectively.
Fatigue syndromes (FSs) affect large numbers of individuals, yet evidence from epidemiological studies on adverse outcomes, such as premature death, is limited.
Cohort study involving 385 general practices in England that contributed to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with linked inpatient Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) and Office for National Statistics (ONS) cause of death information. A total of 10 477 patients aged 15 years and above, diagnosed with a FS during 2000–2014, were individually matched with up to 20 comparator patients without a history of having a FS. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated to compare the FS and comparison cohorts on clinical characteristics. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent adverse outcomes were estimated from stratified Cox regression models.
Among patients diagnosed with FSs, we found elevated baseline prevalence of: any psychiatric illness (PR 1.77; 95% CI 1.72–1.82), anxiety disorders (PR 1.92; 1.85–1.99), depression (PR 1.89; 1.83–1.96), psychotropic prescriptions (PR 1.68; 1.64–1.72) and comorbid physical illness (PR 1.28; 1.23–1.32). We found no significant differences in risks for: all-cause mortality (HR 0.99; 0.91–1.09), natural death (HR 0.99; 0.90–1.09), unnatural death (HR 1.00; 0.59–1.72) or suicide (HR 1.68; 0.78–3.63). We did, however, observe a significantly elevated non-fatal self-harm risk: HR 1.83; 1.56–2.15.
The absence of elevated premature mortality risk is reassuring. The raised prevalence of mental illness and increased non-fatal self-harm risk indicate a need for enhanced assessment and management of psychopathology associated with fatigue syndromes.
We conducted research to evaluate various herbicides for POST false-green kyllinga control in cool-season turfgrass (primarily creeping bentgrass). In a preliminary evaluation, single and sequential applications of halosulfuron-methyl (70 g ai ha−1), mesotrione (175 g ai ha−1), and sulfentrazone (140 g ai ha−1), as well as a single application of imazosulfuron (740 g ai ha−1), were evaluated in New Jersey. Imazosulfuron and sequential applications of halosulfuron-methyl controlled false-green kyllinga >93% at 9 and 18 wk after initial treatment (WAIT). Sulfentrazone and mesotrione controlled false-green kyllinga <50%. Additional experiments were conducted to evaluate single and sequential applications of halosulfuron-methyl (70 g ha−1), imazosulfuron (420 and 740 g ha−1), and sulfentrazone (140 g ha−1) in New Jersey and Indiana at two locations in each state. At 12 WAIT, imazosulfuron generally controlled false-green kyllinga more effectively than other treatments at all locations. Sequential applications of imazosulfuron controlled false-green kyllinga 100% at 12 WAIT. Halosulfuron-methyl was less effective in Indiana than in New Jersey. Sulfentrazone controlled false-green kyllinga <40% at 12 WAIT. This research demonstrates that imazosulfuron is more effective than halosulfuron-methyl and sulfentrazone for POST false-green kyllinga control in cool-season turf.
The need for hollow microneedle arrays is important for both drug delivery and wearable sensor applications; however, their fabrication poses many challenges. Hollow metal microneedle arrays residing on a flexible metal foil substrate were created by combining additive manufacturing, micromolding, and electroplating approaches in a process we refer to as electromolding. A solid microneedle with inward facing ledge was fabricated with a two photon polymerization (2PP) system utilizing laser direct write (LDW) and then molded with polydimethylsiloxane. These molds were then coated with a seed layer of Ti/Au and subsequently electroplated with pulsed deposition to create hollow microneedles. An inward facing ledge provided a physical blocking platform to restrict deposition of the metal seed layer for creation of the microneedle bore. Various ledge sizes were tested and showed that the resulting seed layer void could be controlled via the ledge length. Mechanical properties of the PDMS mold was adjusted via the precursor ratio to create a more ductile mold that eliminated tip damage to the microneedles upon removal from the molds. Master structures were capable of being molded numerous times and molds were able to be reused. SEM/EDX analysis showed that trace amounts of the PDMS mold were transferred to the metal microneedle upon removal. The microneedle substrate showed a degree of flexibility that withstood over 100 cycles of bending from side to side without damaging. Microneedles were tested for their fracture strength and were capable of puncturing porcine skin and injecting a dye.
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) has been associated with depression and can have an impact on quality of life. Therefore, researchers have suggested the potential utility of psychological interventions for targeting depression among CSU patients. Psychological interventions that may hold the most promise are those that are brief and easily transportable, such as brief behavioural activation treatment for depression. We report results of a preliminary investigation of an uncontrolled open trial of a one-session behavioural activation treatment for depression designed for patients with CSU (BATD-CSU) at a university-based allergy and immunology clinic. Participants were 11 females with chronic, poorly controlled urticaria and symptoms of depression. Following the completion of pretreatment questionnaires, participants were administered BATD-CSU primarily by non-mental health professionals trained and supervised in its delivery. One month post-BATD-CSU, participants completed follow-up questionnaires. Participants exhibited significant reductions in depression severity, avoidance/rumination, and work/school impairment. BATD-CSU was also associated with improvements in urticaria control one month post-treatment. Moreover, five of nine patients reported reliable and clinically significant improvement on at least one outcome. Results demonstrate that BATD-CSU may have benefits for CSU patients even when consisting of one session and delivered by professionals with limited background in psychological interventions, thus speaking to its feasibility and transportability.
Vertebrate microfossil assemblages in a stratigraphic sequence often yield similar assortments of taxa but at different relative abundances, potentially indicative of marginal paleocommunity changes driven by paleoenvironmental change over time. For example, stratigraphically younger assemblages in the Dinosaur Park Formation (DPF) yield proportionally more aquatic taxa, consistent with marine transgression. However, individual deposits may have received specimens from multiple source paleocommunities over time, limiting our ability to confidently identify ecologically significant, paleocommunity differences through direct assemblage comparisons. We adapted a three-source, two-tracer Bayesian mixing model to quantify proportional contributions from different source habitats to DPF microfossil assemblages. Prior information about the compositions of separate, relatively unmixed terrestrial, freshwater, and marine assemblages from the Belly River Group allowed us to define expected taxon percent abundances for the end-member habitats likely contributing specimens to the mixed deposits. We compared the mixed assemblage and end-member distributions using 21 different combinations of vertebrate taxa. Chondrichthyan, dinosaur, and amphibian occurrence patterns ultimately allowed us to parse the contributions from the potential sources to 14 of the 15 mixed assemblages. The results confirmed a significant decline in terrestrial contributions at younger DPF sites, driven primarily by increased freshwater specimen inputs—not incursions from the adjacent marine paleocommunity. A rising base level likely increased lateral channel migration and the prevalence of freshwater habitats on the landscape, factors that contributed to increased paleocommunity mixing at younger channel deposit sites. Bayesian methods can account for source-mixing bias, which may be common in assemblages associated with major paleoenvironmental changes.
Each year, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel respond to over 30 million calls for assistance in the United States alone. These EMS personnel have a rate of occupational fatality comparable to firefighters and police, and a rate of non-fatal injuries that is higher than the rates for police and firefighters and much higher than the national average for all workers. In Australia, no occupational group has a higher injury or fatality rate than EMS personnel. Emergency Medical Services personnel in the US have a rate of occupational violence injuries that is about 22-times higher than the average for all workers. On average, more than one EMS provider in the US is killed every year in an act of violence.
The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify the risks and factors associated with work-related physical violence against EMS personnel internationally.
An online survey, based on a tool developed by the World Health Organization (WHO; Geneva, Switzerland), collected responses from April through November 2016.
There were 1,778 EMS personnel respondents from 13 countries; 69% were male and 54% were married. Around 55% described their primary EMS work location as “urban.” Approximately 68% described their employer as a “public provider.” The majority of respondents were from the US.
When asked “Have you ever been physically attacked while on-duty?” 761 (65%) of the 1,172 who answered the question answered “Yes.” In almost 10% (67) of those incidents, the perpetrator used a weapon. Approximately 90% of the perpetrators were patients and around five percent were patient family members. The influence of alcohol and drugs was prevalent. Overall, men experienced more assaults than women, and younger workers experienced more assaults than older workers.
In order to develop and implement measures to increase safety, EMS personnel must be involved with the research and implementation process. Furthermore, EMS agencies must work with university researchers to quantify agency-level risks and to develop, test, and implement interventions in such a way that they can be reliably evaluated and the results published in peer-reviewed journals.
MaguireBJ, BrowneM, O’NeillBJ, DealyMT, ClareD, O’MearaP. International Survey of Violence Against EMS Personnel: Physical Violence Report. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):526–531.
We report on reliability testing of vertical GaN (v-GaN) devices under continuous switching conditions of 500, 750, and 1000 V. Using a modified double-pulse test circuit, we evaluate 1200 V-rated v-GaN PiN diodes fabricated by Avogy. Forward current–voltage characteristics do not change over the stress period. Under the reverse bias, the devices exhibit an initial rise in leakage current, followed by a slower rate of increase with further stress. The leakage recovers after a day's relaxation which suggests that trapping of carriers in deep states is responsible. Overall, we found the devices to be robust over the range of conditions tested.
A synthesis method to form foams consisting of a shell of metals conformally coated on carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays by electroplating from a single bath electrolyte is demonstrated in this work. A triple cyclic pulse electrodeposition technique was used to deposit Ni and Cu layers on the CNT arrays, and electron microscopy was then used to identify conditions amenable to semi-conformal and island growth morphologies. Nanoindentation of the resulting metallic-CNT composite foam structure, using a flat punch/compression geometry, demonstrates that adding metallic shells to the CNT turf to create a metallic low density foam increases both the hardness and elastic modulus; however, once island growth initiates there is no significant subsequent increase in mechanical properties with increases in deposited metals.
A synthesis method to form conformal core-shell foams of metals and alloys on a carbon nanotube (CNT) scaffold by electroplating from a single bath electrolyte is demonstrated in this work. A triple cyclic pulse electrodeposition technique was used to deposit Ni and Cu layers on the CNT scaffold, and electron microscopy was then used to identify conditions amenable to conformal and island growth morphologies. Nanoindentation of the resulting metallic foam structure, using a flat punch/compression geometry, demonstrates that adding conformal metallic shells to the CNT turf to create a metal coated low density foam increases both the hardness and elastic modulus; however, once island growth initiates there is no significant subsequent increase in mechanical properties with increases in deposited metals.
Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88) presented a critique of our recently published paper in Cell Reports entitled ‘Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets’ (Lam et al., Cell Reports, Vol. 21, 2017, 2597–2613). Specifically, Hill offered several interrelated comments suggesting potential problems with our use of a new analytic method called Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) (Turley et al., Nature Genetics, Vol. 50, 2018, 229–237). In this brief article, we respond to each of these concerns. Using empirical data, we conclude that our MTAG results do not suffer from ‘inflation in the FDR [false discovery rate]’, as suggested by Hill (Twin Research and Human Genetics, Vol. 21, 2018, 84–88), and are not ‘more relevant to the genetic contributions to education than they are to the genetic contributions to intelligence’.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Reducing radiologic exams has been a focus of cost reduction in healthcare systems. The utility and justification of obtaining cross-sectional imaging (PPCSI) before surgical intervention continues to be evaluated. For peripheral artery disease (PAD) consensus guidelines regarding PPCSI do not exist and may be influenced by patient complexity, variation of disease presentation, and physician preference. The objective of this study was to determine the utility of PPCSI before percutaneous PAD intervention. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients receiving first-time endovascular revascularization procedure for PAD from 2013 to 2015 were evaluated for PPCSI done within 180 days prior to revascularization. Patient and physician demographics, perioperative characteristics, and disease distribution/severity were evaluated. The primary outcome was technical success defined as improving inflow and/or revascularization of the target outflow vessels to <50% stenosis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 348 patients who underwent an attempted revascularization procedure 159 (45.7%) patients underwent PPCSI, including 151 CTA and 8 MRA. Of these, 48% were ordered by the referring provider (84% at an outside institution), and 52% were ordered by the treating physician. PPCSI was performed a median of 26 days (IQR 9-53) prior to procedure. Individual vascular surgeon practice identified PPCSI rates ranging from 31% to 70%. On multivariate analysis chronic kidney disease (OR=0.35; CI 0.17–0.73) had the strongest effect against of PPCSI, and Inpatient/ED evaluation (OR=3.20; CI 1.58–6.50), aorto-iliac (OR=2.78; CI 1.46–5.29) and femoral-popliteal occlusions (OR=2.51; CI 1.38–4.55) most strongly predicted PPCSI. After excluding 31 diagnostic procedures, technical success did not differ between endovascular procedures with PPSCI (91.3%) or without PPCSI (85.6%), p=0.11. When analyzing 89 femoral-popliteal occlusions, technical success was higher with PPCSI (88%) compared to procedures without PPSCI (69%), p=0.026. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: PPCSI use is influenced by inpatient status, chronic kidney disease, and anatomic consideration. PPCSI was not associated with overall technical success although it appeared beneficial for femoral-popliteal occlusions. Routine practices of ordering of PPCSI may not be warranted when considering technical success but may be important in treatment planning. Further studies are warranted to determine if radiation, cost, and contrast load justify PPCSI.