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As part of the international joint projects working towards the control of taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia Pacific, epidemiological studies on Taenia solium cysticercosis have been carried out in high-incidence populations, such as minority groups in Thailand. To assess the epidemiology of cysticercotic infections in pigs in the hill-tribe minority villages (Karen) in Tak province, Thailand, we conducted serological screening and necropsies. The patterns of antibody response to T. solium antigens were then investigated using immunoblot assays. Of the 188 pig serum samples tested for antibody responses to partially purified low-molecular-weight antigens of T. solium cyst fluid, positive responses were detected in 37 samples (19.7%). Based on these results, 16 pigs (10 seropositive and 6 seronegative) were necropsied for investigation of cysticerci and intestinal parasites. All seropositive pigs were coinfected with both T. solium and Taenia hydatigena cysticerci, except one, which was infected with T. hydatigena alone. Three of the six seronegative pigs were confirmed to be infected with T. hydatigena. Pigs infected with T. solium showed much stronger antibody responses than those infected with T. hydatigena. Our results demonstrate the co-occurrence of two swine cysticercoses due to T. solium and T. hydatigena in the studied areas. This study also reveals the importance of direct confirmation of the presence of cysticerci by necropsy after serological screening. In addition to the prevalence of swine cysticercosis in these endemic areas, our findings also reveal potential implications for the development of serological diagnostic assays for swine cysticercosis.
We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
In this study, we used an online survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to environmental cleaning and other infection prevention strategies among environmental services workers (ESWs) at 5 hospitals. Our findings suggest that ESWs could benefit from additional education and feedback as well as new strategies to address workflow challenges.
The interactions between homogeneous turbulence and a planar shock wave are analytically investigated using rapid distortion theory (RDT). Analytical solutions in the solenoidal modes are obtained. Qualitative answers to unsolved questions in a report by Andreopoulos et al. (Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., vol. 524, 2000, pp. 309–345) are provided within the linear theoretical framework. The results show that the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is increased after interaction with a shock wave and that the contributions to the amplification can be interpreted primarily as the combined effect of shock-induced compression, which is a direct consequence of the Rankine–Hugoniot relation, and the nonlinear effect, which is an indirect consequence of the Rankine–Hugoniot relation via the perturbation manner. For initial homogeneous axisymmetric turbulence, the amplification of the TKE depends on the initial degree of anisotropy. Furthermore, the increase in energy at high wavenumbers is confirmed by the one-dimensional spectra. The enstrophy is also increased; its increase is more significant than that of the TKE because of the significant increase in enstrophy at high wavenumbers. The vorticity components perpendicular to the shock-induced compressed direction are amplified more than the parallel vorticity component. These results strongly suggest that a high resolution is needed to obtain accurate results for the turbulence–shock-wave interaction. The integral length scales (
) and the Taylor microscales (
) are decreased for most cases after the interaction. However,
are amplified. Here, the subscripts 2 and 3 indicate the perpendicular components relative to the shock-induced compressed direction. The dissipation length and TKE dissipation rate are amplified.
We previously reported an association between human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) and epidemic myalgia with myositis in adults during summers in which an HPeV3 outbreak occurred in children. However, this disease association has not yet been reported elsewhere. We have since continued our surveillance to accumulate data on this disease association and to confirm whether myalgia occurs in children as well as adults. Between June and August 2014, we collected 380 specimens from children with infectious diseases. We also collected clinical specimens from two adult and three paediatric patients suspected of myalgia. We then performed virus isolation and reverse-transcription–PCR using the collected specimens. We detected HPeV3 in 26 children with infectious diseases, which we regarded as indicating an outbreak. We also confirmed HPeV3 infection in all patients suspected of myalgia. In particular the symptoms in two boys, complaining of myalgia and fever, closely matched the criteria for adult myalgia. Based on our findings from 2008, 2011 and 2014, we again urge that clinical consideration be given to the relationship between myalgia and HPeV3 infections during HPeV3 outbreaks in children. Furthermore, our observations from 2014 suggest that epidemic myalgia and myositis occur not only in adults but also in children.
A 79-year-old female with type 2 diabetes and mild cognitive impairment (Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5) was supported with medication with regard to the daily requirements using a medication reminder device. Use of this device not only improved her medication adherence, hemoglobin A1c level, and self-confidence but also reduced caregiver's burden. For elderly patients with such diseases, loading the device with medication, providing advance notice before mechanical reminders for a short period after the device's activation, monitoring unused medication, and adjusting the timing of reminders according to users’ daily routine, seemed to facilitate daily use of the device.
Swimming is dynamically a part of the hydrodynamic field and can be considered as a field of the optimal control motion. Animals move by instinct according to the situation which they are confronting with. Therefore, their instinctive motion is optimal most of the time. The movement of animals can be classified roughly into two kinds: the fast motion with the maximum speed and the motion with the minimum energy consumption. Considering the foreleg of the soft shelled turtle as a flat plane, several sets of movement of the foreleg were observed and calculated theoretically. The theoretical results agreed the observation results in the both cases with the maximum speed and the minimum energy consumption. Applying the theoretical movement of the soft shelled turtle foreleg to human movement in swimming, the general S-shaped pull stroke is the minimum energy consumption motion in free-style. It became clear that there was a different stroke for generating the maximum speed in free-style. That was the soft shelled turtle style of fast swimming, the I-shaped pull strokes. In 2002 when the author announced this theory, there was only one fast swimmer whose free-style swimming strokes coincidentally accorded with the I-shaped pull with fewer numbers of strokes at that time. He was the Olympic gold medalist Ian Thorp. Now the I-shaped stoke has become main stream in free style.
In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities.
Echinococcosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Kyrgyzstan, and the incidence of human infection has increased substantially since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Domestic dogs are hosts of Echinococcus spp. and play an important role in the transmission of these parasites. The demography, ecology and behaviour of dogs are therefore relevant in studying Echinococcus spp. transmission. Dog demographics, roles of dogs, dog movements and faecal environmental contamination were assessed in four rural communities in the Alay Valley, southern Kyrgyzstan. Arecoline purge data revealed for the first time that E. granulosus, E. canadensis and E. multilocularis were present in domestic dogs in the Alay Valley. Surveys revealed that many households had dogs and that dogs played various roles in the communities, as pets, guard dogs or sheep dogs. Almost all dogs were free to roam, and GPS data revealed that many moved outside their communities, thus being able to scavenge offal and consume rodents. Faecal environmental contamination was high, presenting a significant infection risk to the local communities.
Bovine cysticercosis causing damage to the beef industry is closely linked to human taeniasis due to Taenia saginata. In African countries, Taenia spp. from wildlife are also involved as possible sources of infections in livestock. To identify the aetiological agents of bovine cysticercosis in Ethiopia, cysticerci were collected from 41 cattle slaughtered in the eastern and central areas during 2010–2012. A single cysticercus per animal was subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based DNA sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene, and the resultant sequence was compared with those of members of the genus Taenia. Although 38 out of 41 cysticerci (92.7%) were identified as T. saginata, three samples (7.3%) showed the hitherto unknown sequences of Taenia sp., which is distantly related to Taenia solium, Taenia arctos and Taenia ovis. Old literatures suggest it to be Taenia hyaenae, but morphological identification of species could not be completed by observing only the larval samples.
Magnesium doped ZnO films were electrochemically grown on the NESA conductive glass substrate from the magnesium nitrate aqueous solution with zinc sulfate, kept at 323K and the cathodic potential of -0.9V vs. Ag/AgCl. The Mg/(Mg+Zn) atomic ratio of Zn1-xMgxO films increased with the decrease in the zinc sulfate concentration. The optical band gap energy of these Zn1-xMgxO films decreased with increasing content of zinc sulfate. Thus, the optical band gap energy and Mg/(Mg+Zn) atomic ratio of Zn1-xMgxO films would depend on the zinc sulfate concentration.
Epitaxial magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films prepared on Si(0 0 1) substrates revealed the contraction of its lattice constants along both out-of-plane and in-plane directions. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) verified the epitaxial growth with the relation of MgO(1 0 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [cubic on cubic growth] with large lattice misfit of ~22% instead of the relation of MgO(1 1 0) parallel to Si(1 0 0) [45° rotation growth] with lattice mismatch of ~9%. Although the domain epitaxy explaining the cubic on cubic growth is preferred in terms of crystallography, structural stability is not considered in the concept of the domain epitaxy. In order to explain the contraction of lattice constant from point of view of structural stability, ab initio method was used to evaluate all-electron total energy, and optimal lattice constant was estimated with point defects in the MgO structure.
TiO2 films with poly crystal were electrodeposited on conductive substrate (NESA glass, approximately 10Ω/□, Asahi glass Co. Ltd.) from the titanium potassium oxalate dehydrate aqueous solution containing hydroxylamine adjusted pH 9 with KOH aq. at 333k. The peak corresponded to Ti3+ion into these TiO2 film was not observed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photocatalysis of TiO2 film increased with a decrease of cathodic potential. In particular, TiO2 film obtained at cathodic potential of -1.3V, had the higher photocatalysis than that of other potential.
Engineering and manufacturing of thick and bio-functional tissue products is one of the big issues in tissue engineering. To produce such tissues, we need some innovative technologies, which enable us to build up thick, three-dimensional structures and to arrange multiple types of cells to make complicated tissue structures. Based on such considerations, we have developed a custom-made inkjet 3D bioprinter, which realized both of direct cell printing and 3D laminating printing with cells and hydrogel. Recently, it has been improved, and here we report recent progresses and our achievements with new version 3D bioprinter.
Image based printing mode and active Z-axis control system were added. As a useful structure, an image of multi-honeycomb pattern was designed in computer and next it was copied and finally in total 100 image data were prepared. Using those digital data, 3D image of thick multi-honeycomb structure was reconstructed in computer, and then, laminating printing was carried out using our new version 3D bioprinter with alginate hydrogel. The new version printer showed good performance of 3D laminating printing and finally complicated 3D multi-honeycomb hydrogel structures could be successfully fabricated. It is indicated that fabrication of cell containing 3D structures based on the computer aided designs is feasible and that such biofabrication technologies must contribute to further innovative advancement of tissue engineering.