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Usutu virus (USUV) is an emerging arbovirus that was first isolated in South Africa in 1959. This Flavivirus is maintained in the environment through a typical enzootic cycle involving mosquitoes and birds. USUV has spread to a large part of the European continent over the two decades mainly leading to substantial avian mortalities with a significant recrudescence of bird infections recorded throughout Europe within the few last years. USUV infection in humans is considered to be most often asymptomatic or to cause mild clinical signs. Nonetheless, a few cases of neurological complications such as encephalitis or meningoencephalitis have been reported. USUV and West Nile virus (WNV) share many features, like a close phylogenetic relatedness and a similar ecology, with co-circulation frequently observed in nature. However, USUV has been much less studied and in-depth comparisons of the biology of these viruses are yet rare. In this review, we discuss the main body of knowledge regarding USUV and compare it with the literature on WNV, addressing in particular virological and clinical aspects, and pointing data gaps.
Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis, which has been reported worldwide. BLV has been found recently in human tissue and it could have a significant impact on human health. A possible hypothesis regarding viral entry to humans is through the consumption of infected foodstuffs. This study was aimed at detecting the presence of BLV DNA in raw beef and fresh milk for human consumption. Nested PCR directed at the BLV gag gene (272 bp) was used as a diagnostic test. PCR products were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Forty-nine per cent of the samples proved positive for the presence of proviral DNA. This is the first study highlighting the presence of the BLV gag gene in meat products for human consumption and confirms the presence of the viral DNA in raw milk, as in previous reports. The presence of viral DNA in food products could suggest that viral particles may also be found. Further studies are needed to confirm the presence of infected viral particles, even though the present findings could represent a first approach to BLV transmission to humans through foodstuff consumption.
There is a need of more quantitative standardised data to compare local Mental Health Systems (MHSs) across international jurisdictions. Problems related to terminological variability and commensurability in the evaluation of services hamper like-with-like comparisons and hinder the development of work in this area. This study was aimed to provide standard assessment and comparison of MHS in selected local areas in Europe, contributing to a better understanding of MHS and related allocation of resources at local level and to lessen the scarcity in standard service comparison in Europe. This study is part of the Seventh Framework programme REFINEMENT (Research on Financing Systems’ Effect on the Quality of Mental Health Care in Europe) project.
A total of eight study areas from European countries with different systems of care (Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania, Spain) were analysed using a standard open-access classification system (Description and Evaluation of Services for Long Term Care in Europe, DESDE-LTC). All publicly funded services universally accessible to adults (≥18 years) with a psychiatric disorder were coded. Care availability, diversity and capacity were compared across these eight local MHS.
The comparison of MHS revealed more community-oriented delivery systems in the areas of England (Hampshire) and Southern European countries (Verona – Italy and Girona – Spain). Community-oriented systems with a higher proportion of hospital care were identified in Austria (Industrieviertel) and Scandinavian countries (Sør-Trøndelag in Norway and Helsinki-Uusimaa in Finland), while Loiret (France) was considered as a predominantly hospital-based system. The MHS in Suceava (Romania) was still in transition to community care.
There is a significant variation in care availability and capacity across MHS of local areas in Europe. This information is relevant for understanding the process of implementation of community-oriented mental health care in local areas. Standard comparison of care provision in local areas is important for context analysis and policy planning.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To study the rate of recruitment to the Pulmonary Research Registry (PRR) at the University of Chicago using HealtheRx recruitment Versus usual practice. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: CommunityRx is a health information technology, integrated with electronic medical record (EMR) platforms, that generates personalized referrals (“HealtheRxs”) for community-based programs and services that address basic and other health-related self-care needs. The target population included people ages 18 and older, English speaking, living in 1 of 16 ZIP codes on Chicago’s south and west sides (106 mi2) who received care at ≥1 of 28 CommunityRx partner sites and had a diagnosis of asthma or COPD. Between December 2015 and December 2016, information about pulmonary research participation opportunities was included on the HealtheRxs of eligible patients contemporaneously with usual registry recruitment methods. Usual methods, used since 2010 by the PRR group, included public advertisements requiring the patient to call the research team for more information and education of eligible patients identified during routine clinical care with a Pulmonary/Critical Care clinician or when enrolling in a pulmonary clinical trial. We hypothesized that, compared with usual recruitment practices, the HealtheRx recruitment strategy would increase the rate and decrease the per subject cost of patient recruitment to a prospective registry. Total annual recruitment costs for each method were calculated and divided by the number of consented PRR enrollees per method. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Between December 22, 2015 and December 15, 2016 13,437 HealtheRxs (8762 for asthma, 3842 for COPD, and 833 for both asthma and COPD) were generated with the recruitment advertisement. In total, 41 patients responded to the ad and participated in the phone survey. In which 15 (36.5%) participants self-reported a diagnosis of asthma only (65% of all HealtheRxs with advertisement were for asthma only), 9 (22%) reported a diagnosis of COPD only (28.5% of all HealtheRxs with advertisement were for COPD only), and 17 (41.5%) reported diagnoses of both asthma and COPD (6.2% of all HealtheRxs with advertisement were for asthma and COPD). Most participants were female (n=28), non-Hispanic black (n=37), and not employed (n=39). The median age was 57. The majority (n=31) had never participated in health or medical research and was not aware of current opportunities to participate in research (n=25). All 41 participants expressed interest in joining PRR and were mailed a blank PRR consent form and a prepaid return envelope with their incentive check for the telephone survey. To date, 5 participants returned a signed consent form via mail and were enrolled in PRR. During the same period, 4 patients enrolled in PRR via usual recruitment methods. The cost per subject to enroll in PRR was $364.40 using the HealtheRx recruitment and $4590 using usual practice. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: NIH has called for innovation in research recruitment methodologies to increase enrollment especially of people who are under-represented in clinical trials research. This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficiency of using an EMR-integrated recruitment method to enroll people of under-represented minority groups to a research registry.
The Archive is the main Gaia data distribution hub. The contents of DR1 are briefly reviewed and the data structures discussed. The system architecture, based on Virtual Observatory standards, is also presented, together with the extensions that allow e.g. authenticated access, persistent uploads and table sharing. Finally some usage examples are provided.
Aluminum titanium oxynitride (TiAlNO) coatings were deposited on 316 steel substrates by the sputtering technique, varying the nitrogen flow from 2.5, 5, 7.5 to 10 sccm, and maintaining constant at 12 sccm the flow argon gas. We used targets of titanium and alumina with 99.995% purity. The hardness and tribological analyses were determined by Vickers microhardness and tribology (tribometer pin-disc), respectively. The results show that the coating with a nitrogen flow of 10 sccm had the lowest volumetric wear (2.047738693 mm3) and the maximum value of hardness (11.2 GPa). Analysis of X-ray diffraction evidenced the presence of three crystalline phases: Ti2N, Al2O3 and TiO2. It can be observed that by increasing the nitrogen flow, the portion of semi-Ti2N phase increases, Al2O3 decreases and TiO2 remains almost constant, and also producing a change in crystallographic orientation with reference to the Ti2N phase. Crystal grain sizes were estimated by X-ray diffraction Fourier line profile analysis using Warren–Averbach method. This analysis showed a grain size between 5 and 15 nm. Raman spectroscopy results show the presence of the TiO2 phase which corroborated the X-ray diffraction results.
Gravity wave turbulence is investigated experimentally in a large wave basin in which irregular waves are generated unidirectionally. The roles of the basin boundary conditions (absorbing or reflecting) and of the forcing properties are investigated. To that purpose, an absorbing sloping beach opposite the wavemaker can be replaced by a reflecting vertical wall. We observe that the wave field properties depend strongly on these boundary conditions. A quasi-one-dimensional field of nonlinear waves propagates towards the beach, where they are damped whereas a more multidirectional wave field is observed with the wall. In both cases, the wave spectrum scales as a frequency power law with an exponent that increases continuously with the forcing amplitude up to a value close to
. The physical mechanisms involved most likely differ with the boundary condition used, but cannot be easily discriminated with only temporal measurements. We also studied freely decaying gravity wave turbulence in the closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonlinear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, nonlinear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation that highlights the important role of a large-scale Fourier mode. By estimation of the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov–Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated and found to be compatible with a recently obtained theoretical value.
Loss of cortical volume in frontotemporal regions occurs in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and longitudinal studies have reported progressive brain volume changes at different stages of the disease, even if cognitive deficits remain stable over time. We investigated cortical changes in patients over the 2 years following their FEP and their associations with clinical and cognitive measures.
Twenty-seven patients after their FEP (20 with schizophrenia, seven with schizo-affective disorder) and 25 healthy controls matched for age and gender participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5-T scanner both at baseline and after 2 years. Area and thickness of the cortex were measured using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Patients also underwent neuropsychological testing at these two time points.
Progressive cortical thinning in the superior and inferior frontal and, to a lesser extent, superior temporal cortex was observed in patients. Cortical area remained constant. Cortical thinning was associated with duration of treatment at a trend level and was predicted by baseline measures of IQ and working memory. Cortical thinning occurred in the absence of clinical or cognitive deterioration.
The clinical implications of these cortical changes remain uncertain, but patients with less cognitive reserve may be more vulnerable to developing cortical abnormalities when exposed to medication or other disease-related biological factors.
We estimate the effect of changes in the per capita expenditures of county departments of public health on county-level general health status. Using panel data on 40 counties in California (2001–2009), dynamic panel estimation techniques are combined with the Lewbel instrumental variable technique to estimate an aggregate demand for health function that measures the causal cumulative impact that per capita public health expenditures have on county-level general health status. We find that a $10 long-term increase in per capita public health expenditures would increase the percentage of the population reporting good, very good or excellent health by 0.065 percentage points. Each year expenditures were increased would result in ∼24,000 individuals moving from the ‘poor or fair health’ category to the ‘good, very good or excellent health’ category across these 40 counties. In terms of the overall impact of county public health departments on general health status, at current funding levels, each annual expenditure cycle results in over 207,000 individuals being in the ‘good, very good or excellent’ categories of health status rather than the ‘poor or fair’ categories.
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin-Film Transistors (TFTs) using Aluminum (Al) and Aluminum-doped zinc Oxide (AZO) as Source-Drain (S-D) contacts are reported. The fabrication process was carried out using five photolithography steps with a maximum processing temperature of 100 °C, which makes the process compatible with flexible/transparent applications. The AZO and ZnO films were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). Aluminum was deposited using ebeam. The devices showed mobilities >10 cm2/V-s, threshold voltage in the range of 7 V and On/Off current ratios >105. The resistance analysis showed that AZO is a better contact with lower contact resistance as identified in the TFTs. The AZO and ZnO stacks characterized by UV-V shows an optical transmission >80 %.
In this work, the synthesis of new hybrid material based on a poly (buthyl acrylate –co- vinyl formamide) copolymer using the emulsion polymerization and doped with Pd, is discussed. The copolymer structure was confirmed by FT-IR. Afterwards, Pd nanocrystals previously synthesized, resulting on a spherical shape of ~ 5 nm, as measured by High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), were deposited on the structure of the organic material. The films were analyzed using AFM and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), giving rise to a hybrid material that could be applied in areas such as nanolithography, catalysis, and sensors.
In the present work, a comparison study of the Ni catalysts supported on SBA-15 silica support prepared with and without the addition of organic ligands (citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was undertaken. The aim of this study was to inquire on the effect of the addition of organic ligands on the characteristics of the supported NiO and Ni nanoparticles and on their activity and selectivity in hydrogenation (HYD) of aromatics. Catalysts with different metal loadings (5, 10 and 20 wt. % of Ni) were prepared, characterized by nitrogen physisorption, small-angle and powder XRD, TPR, UV-vis DRS, and HRTEM, and tested in HYD of naphthalene (NP). It was found that Ni(II)-Ligand complexes were formed in aqueous solutions of Ni(NO3)2 containing citric acid (CA) or EDTA. Catalysts prepared from impregnation solutions with and without ligands had different textural characteristics and dispersion of NiO particles after calcination at 500 °C for 4 h. As it was shown by XRD, DRS and TPR, dispersion of NiO particles significantly increased when EDTA was used, whereas it noticeably decreased after the addition of CA. Similar trends were observed in the dispersion of metallic Ni particles after reduction of the NiO/SBA-15 precursors (HRTEM). In line with the characterization results, catalytic activity tests revealed strong differences in the activity of the prepared Ni/SBA-15 catalysts in hydrogenation of naphthalene. Catalysts prepared with the addition of EDTA were more active than those prepared without ligands. On the contrary, the HYD activity of a series of the Ni catalysts prepared with citric acid was lower than of other corresponding samples. The reasons of such a different behavior of the catalysts prepared with two organic ligands used are discussed on the basis of the obtained characterization results.
A series of NiW catalysts supported on SBA-15-type materials modified with Al, Ti or Zr were prepared and tested in simultaneous hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of two model compounds: dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of SBA-type materials (pure silica SBA-15, Al-SBA-15, Ti-SBA-15 or Zr-SBA-15) using Keggin-type heteropolyacid H4SiW12O40 as active phase precursor and nickel nitrate. Nominal composition of the catalysts was 19 wt.% of WO3 and 3 wt.% of NiO. The supports and catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDX, N2physisorption, small-angle and powder XRD, UV-Vis DRS, TPR and HRTEM. It was shown that a good dispersion of Al, Ti and Zr species on the SBA-15 surface was reached. The characteristic structure of the SBA-15 support was preserved in all supports and NiW catalysts. Addition of metal atoms (Al, Ti, Zr) on the SBA-15 surface prior to catalysts’ preparation improved dispersion of Ni and W oxide species in calcined catalysts. HRTEM characterization of sulfided catalysts showed that the dispersion of NiW active phase was also better on metal-containing SBA-15 supports than on the pure silica one. All NiW catalysts supported on metal-containing SBA-15 materials showed an outstanding catalytic performance in HDS of both model compounds used (DBT and 4,6-DMDBT). A good correlation was found between the dispersion of sulfided NiW active phase and catalytic activity results. The highest HDS activity was obtained with the NiW catalyst supported on Zr-containing SBA-15 molecular sieve, which makes it a promising catalytic system for ultra-deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel fuel.
Batch sorption experiments were carried out, in a glove box under N2 atmosphere, for analysing the effect of increasing ISA (isosaccharinic acid) concentrations on sorption of Tc(IV) and Pu(IV) onto previously characterised Spanish concrete and mortar used in a radioactive waste repository. Results clearly showed that concentrations of ISA around 10-4–10-3 M are able to decrease the distribution coefficients (Rd) of the tetravalent elements analysed, both on concrete and mortar. The decrease in Rd experimentally observed was approximately 2 orders of magnitude for technetium and between 3 and 5 orders of magnitude for plutonium.
Two technological processes of synthesis of nanopowders containing Al2O3, AlN, and AlON have been investigated. It has been established that AlN nanoparticles formed on the base of ablation products (Al and N2) during laser irradiation of AlN targets are coated with AlON films of different composition and have a complex surface defective structure. In composite powders obtained by carbothermal reduction of Al2O3, along with AlN and AlON, initial oxide Al2O3 is present, which indicates the incompleteness of the process.