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Several studies have reported that the audiovestibular system is affected in patients with chronic kidney disease.
This study aimed to investigate how the audiovestibular system is affected in patients with various stages of chronic kidney disease.
Sixty participants were divided into three groups: group 1 – controls; group 2 – chronic kidney disease patients receiving conservative treatment; and group 3 – chronic kidney disease patients undergoing regular haemodialysis. Assessments included: standard and high-frequency audiometry and otoacoustic emissions testing, oculomotor tests, and combined vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials testing.
Fifty per cent of group 2 and 60 per cent of group 3 had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. High-frequency pure tone audiometry showed reduced detectability and higher thresholds at 12 kHz and 16 kHz in patients than in controls. Otoacoustic emissions, tracking, optokinetic and combined vestibular-evoked myogenic potential tests showed abnormal results in chronic kidney disease cases.
Both the auditory and vestibular pathways are affected in different stages of chronic kidney disease. High-frequency pure tone audiometry, otoacoustic emissions and combined vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials could be performed routinely in patients with chronic kidney disease, regardless of the disease stage.
Fifty per cent of children with serous otitis media may have some balance disturbances.
To evaluate vestibular function in children with otitis media with effusion.
The control group comprised 25 children with bilateral normal hearing and middle-ear function. The study group consisted of 30 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion; these were divided into 2 subgroups according to air–bone gap size. Measures included the Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory, an imbalance evaluation sheet for children, vestibular bedside tests for children, and air- and bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing.
Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and some vestibular bedside test results were significantly abnormal, with normal video-nystagmography results, in children with otitis media with effusion. Air-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were recorded in 73 per cent of children with otitis media with effusion, with significantly delayed latencies. Bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were successfully detected in 100 per cent of children with otitis media with effusion with similar results to the control group.
The Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory and vestibular bedside tests are valuable tools for detecting vestibular impairment in children. Bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials are useful for vestibular system evaluation.
Auditory neuropathy is a disorder characterised by preservation of outer hair cell function, with normal otoacoustic emissions and/or cochlear microphonics, but an absent or distorted auditory brainstem response.
This study aimed to objectively assess hearing thresholds in patients with auditory neuropathy, using the auditory steady state response.
Materials and methods:
Thirteen patients with auditory neuropathy and 15 normal hearing subjects were examined. Audiological evaluation included basic audiological tests, otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response and auditory steady state response.
In the auditory neuropathy patients, the auditory brainstem response was absent in 11 patients, while the auditory steady state response was absent in only three.
The auditory steady state response may serve as a valuable objective measure for assessing the hearing threshold across different frequencies in patients with auditory neuropathy. We recommend that auditory steady state response be used to complete the evaluation of patients with auditory neuropathy.
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