Anthropometric indices are commonly used in the assessment of nutritional status. This study examined data from elderly Canadian participants in the first phase of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-1). Height and weight were measured in 1,464 community-based individuals and 963 persons in institutions. Institution-dwelling participants weighed less than community-based participants (59.1 ± 13.8 kg. vs. 65.1 ± 14.1 kg.), were shorter (160.4 ± 10.1 cm vs. 162.6 ± 10 cm), and had lower body mass indices (BMIs) (23.3 ± 5.0 vs. 24.6 ± 4.5) (p < .001). Values were lower among women than men, and decreased progressively with age. Quebecers were shorter, with lower body weights compared to Canadians living elsewhere. Anthropometric indices declined by cognitive diagnosis, from normal, to “cognitively impaired, not demented” (CIND), to with dementia; participants with Alzheimer's dementia had the lowest body weights. Correlates of body weight differed for community and institution participants.