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In preparation for a multisite antibiotic stewardship intervention, we assessed knowledge and attitudes toward management of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) plus teamwork and safety climate among providers, nurses, and clinical nurse assistants (CNAs).
Prospective surveys during January–June 2018.
All acute and long-term care units of 4 Veterans’ Affairs facilities.
The survey instrument included 2 previously tested subcomponents: the Kicking CAUTI survey (ASB knowledge and attitudes) and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ).
A total of 534 surveys were completed, with an overall response rate of 65%. Cognitive biases impacting management of ASB were identified. For example, providers presented with a case scenario of an asymptomatic patient with a positive urine culture were more likely to give antibiotics if the organism was resistant to antibiotics. Additionally, more than 80% of both nurses and CNAs indicated that foul smell is an appropriate indication for a urine culture. We found significant interprofessional differences in teamwork and safety climate (defined as attitudes about issues relevant to patient safety), with CNAs having highest scores and resident physicians having the lowest scores on self-reported perceptions of teamwork and safety climates (P < .001). Among providers, higher safety-climate scores were significantly associated with appropriate risk perceptions related to ASB, whereas social norms concerning ASB management were correlated with higher teamwork climate ratings.
Our survey revealed substantial misunderstanding regarding management of ASB among providers, nurses, and CNAs. Educating and empowering these professionals to discourage unnecessary urine culturing and inappropriate antibiotic use will be key components of antibiotic stewardship efforts.
To describe the frequency of use of all types of urinary catheters, including but not limited to indwelling catheters, as well as positive cultures associated with the various types. We also determined the accuracy of catheter-days reporting at our institution.
Prospective, observational trial based on patient-level review of the electronic medical record. Chart review was compared with standard methods of catheter surveillance and reporting by infection control personnel.
Ten internal medicine and 5 long-term care wards in 2 tertiary care Veterans Affairs hospitals in Texas from July 2010 through June 2011.
The study included 7,866 inpatients.
Measurements included patient bed-days; days of use of indwelling, external, suprapubic, and intermittent urinary catheters; number of urine cultures obtained and culture results; and infection control reports of indwelling catheter-days.
We observed 7,866 inpatients with 128,267 bed-days on acute medicine and extended care wards during the study. A urinary catheter was used on 36.9% of the total bed-days observed. Acute medicine wards collected more urine cultures per 1,000 bed-days than did the extended care wards (75.9 and 10.4 cultures per 1,000 bed-days, respectively; P < .0001 ). Catheter-days were divided among indwelling-catheter-days (47.8%), external-catheter-days (48.4%), and other (intermittent- and suprapubic-catheter-days, 3.8%). External catheters contributed to 376 (37.3%) of the 1,009 catheter-associated positive urine cultures. Urinary-catheter-days reported to the infection control department missed 20.1% of the actual days of indwelling catheter use, whereas 12.0% of their reported catheter-days were false.
Urinary catheter use was extremely common. External catheters accounted for a large portion of catheter-associated bacteriuria, and standard practices for tracking urinary-catheter-days were unreliable.
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01052545.
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