Optical-fiber sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) provide accurate, nonintrusive, and reliable remote measurements of temperature, strain, and pressure, and they are immune to electromagnetic interference. FBGs are extensively used in telecommunications, and their manufacture is now cost-effective. As sensors, FBGs find many industrial applications in composite structures used in the civil engineering, aeronautics, train transportation, space, and naval sectors. Tiny FBG sensors embedded in a composite material can provide in situ information about polymer curing (strain, temperature, refractive index) in an elegant and nonintrusive way. Great improvements in composite manufacturing processes such as resin transfer molding (RTM) and resin film infusion (RFI) have been obtained through the use of these sensors. They can also be used in monitoring the “health” of a composite structure and in impact detection to evaluate, for example, the airworthiness of aircraft. Finally, FBGs may be used in instrumentation as composite extensometers or strain rosettes, primarily in civil engineering applications.