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In this research, in situ high-temperature electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping is applied to record and analyze the migration of the α/γ interfaces during cyclic austenite–ferrite phase transformations in a medium manganese steel. The experimental study is supplemented with related 3D phase field (PF) simulations to better understand the 2D EBSD observations in the context of the 3D transformation events taking place below the surface. The in situ EBSD observations and PF simulations show an overall transformation behavior qualitatively similar to that measured in dilatometry. The behavior and kinetics of individual austenite–ferrite interfaces during the transformation is found to have a wide scatter around the average interface behavior deduced on the basis of the dilatometric measurements. The trajectories of selected characteristic interfaces are analyzed in detail and yield insight into the effect of local conditions in the vicinity of interfaces on their motion, as well as the misguiding effects of 2D observations of processes taking place in 3D.
Structured lead zirconium titanate (PZT)–epoxy composites are prepared by dielectrophoresis. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites as a function of PZT volume fraction are investigated and compared with the corresponding unstructured composites. The effect of poling voltage on piezoelectric properties of the composites is studied for various volume fractions of PZT composites. The experimentally observed piezoelectric and dielectric properties have been compared with theoretical models. Dielectrophoretically structured composites exhibit higher piezoelectric voltage coefficients compared to 0–3 composites. Structured composites with 0.1 volume fraction of PZT have the highest piezoelectric voltage coefficient. The flexural strength and bending modulus of the structured and random composites were analyzed using three-point bending tests.
A set of hot rolled 7xxx aluminum alloys with modification of processing conditions were analyzed on their fatigue life time as well as the internal microstructure using 3D computed X-ray tomography with a lab scale scanner and optical microscopy. It is shown that for conventional hot rolling conditions many large (>300μm) casting pores were retained in the material. With modifications of the rolling conditions the size and density distribution of the retained casting pores were significantly reduced, leading to greatly improved fatigue life times.
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