To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Global conversations emphasize strengthening communities’ resilience to disasters. These conversations inspired the Victorian Compendium of Community-Based Resilience Building Case Studies. The Compendium motivates community members to build expertise, reduce program duplication, and save valuable resources. Case study analysis identified critical success factors. Between 2012 and 2018, community groups completed an Expression of Interest to present at the MUDRI Advancing Community Resilience Forums, which provided an opportunity to impart resilience activities and knowledge. It also solved challenges and shared unforeseen learning. Over six years, 72 groups presented. Subsequently, 35 submitted their activity for consideration into the Compendium. Of these 35, 30 were included.
This updated research analyses critical success factors of 30 case studies. Success factors support the key tenet of the Victorian Compendium of Community-Based Resilience Building Case Studies: to promote the sharing of achievable, practical resilience building activities. The online Compendium provides free access for all communities to explore activities before, during, and after disasters.
A thematic analysis identified critical success factors of 30 Compendium case studies.
Case studies revealed unique and valuable learning in diverse settings. The critical success factors included: (1) strong governance, Board support, leadership and trust; (2) partnerships; (3) commitment, adaptability, and stamina; and (4) community-based initiatives. Other success factors included a paid facilitator and local government support, stamina, and celebrating success.
The Compendium represents an Australian first and offers an innovative contribution to resilience practice and research. It enhances other Victorian initiatives such as the Rockefeller funded Resilient Melbourne Strategy, which incorporates the Compendium to bring people together from across sectors to deliver distinct, yet connected actions to strengthen resilience. The Compendium enables diverse communities to adopt or adapt proven resilience activities, thereby preserving valuable resources. It offers the opportunity to extend to a national or international Compendium.
The study aimed at assessing stunting, wasting and breast-feeding as correlates of body composition in Cambodian children. As part of a nutrition trial (ISRCTN19918531), fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were measured using 2H dilution at 6 and 15 months of age. Of 419 infants enrolled, 98 % were breastfed, 15 % stunted and 4 % wasted at 6 months. At 15 months, 78 % were breastfed, 24 % stunted and 11 % wasted. Those not breastfed had lower FMI at 6 months but not at 15 months. Stunted children had lower FM at 6 months and lower FFM at 6 and 15 months compared with children with length-for-age z ≥0. Stunting was not associated with height-adjusted indexes fat mass index (FMI) or fat-free mass index (FFMI). Wasted children had lower FM, FFM, FMI and FFMI at 6 and 15 months compared with children with weight-for-length z (WLZ) ≥0. Generally, FFM and FFMI deficits increased with age, whereas FM and FMI deficits decreased, reflecting interactions between age and WLZ. For example, the FFM deficits were –0·99 (95 % CI –1·26, –0·72) kg at 6 months and –1·44 (95 % CI –1·69; –1·19) kg at 15 months (interaction, P<0·05), while the FMI deficits were –2·12 (95 % CI –2·53, –1·72) kg/m2 at 6 months and –1·32 (95 % CI –1·77, –0·87) kg/m2 at 15 months (interaction, P<0·05). This indicates that undernourished children preserve body fat at the detriment of fat-free tissue, which may have long-term consequences for health and working capacity.
To assess the societal cost-effectiveness of the Transmural Trauma Care Model (TTCM), a multidisciplinary transmural rehabilitation model for trauma patients, compared with regular care.
The economic evaluation was performed alongside a before-and-after study, with a convenience control group measured only afterward, and a 9-month follow-up. Control group patients received regular care and were measured before implementation of the TTCM. Intervention group patients received the TTCM and were measured after its implementation. The primary outcome was generic health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). Secondary outcomes included disease-specific HR-QOL, pain, functional status, and perceived recovery.
Eighty-three trauma patients were included in the intervention group and fifty-seven in the control group. Total societal costs were lower in the intervention group than in the control group, but not statistically significantly so (EUR-267; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], EUR-4,175–3011). At 9 months, there was no statistically significant between-group differences in generic HR-QOL (0.05;95 percent CI, −0.02–0.12) and perceived recovery (0.09;95 percent CI, −0.09–0.28). However, mean between-group differences were statistically significantly in favor of the intervention group for disease-specific HR-QOL (−8.2;95 percent CI, −15.0–−1.4), pain (−0.84;95CI, −1.42–−0.26), and functional status (−20.1;95 percent CI, −29.6–−10.7). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves indicated that if decision makers are not willing to pay anything per unit of effect gained, the TTCM has a 0.54–0.58 probability of being cost-effective compared with regular care. For all outcomes, this probability increased with increasing values of willingness-to-pay.
The TTCM may be cost-effective compared with regular care, depending on the decision-makers willingness to pay and the probability of cost-effectiveness that they perceive as acceptable.
Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being increasingly used for the preoperative evaluation of patients with brain tumours. Methods: The study is a retrospective chart review investigating the use of clinical fMRI from 2002 through 2013 in the preoperative evaluation of brain tumour patients. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected. The specific fMRI protocols used for each patient were recorded. Results: Sixty patients were identified over the 12-year period. The tumour types most commonly investigated were high-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade III or IV), low-grade glioma (World Health Organization grade II), and meningioma. Most common presenting symptoms were seizures (69.6%), language deficits (23.2%), and headache (19.6%). There was a predominance of left hemispheric lesions investigated with fMRI (76.8% vs 23.2% for right). The most commonly involved lobes were frontal (64.3%), temporal (33.9%), parietal (21.4%), and insular (7.1%). The most common fMRI paradigms were language (83.9%), motor (75.0%), sensory (16.1%), and memory (10.7%). The majority of patients ultimately underwent a craniotomy (75.0%), whereas smaller groups underwent stereotactic biopsy (8.9%) and nonsurgical management (16.1%). Time from request for fMRI to actual fMRI acquisition was 3.1±2.3 weeks. Time from fMRI acquisition to intervention was 4.9±5.5 weeks. Conclusions: We have characterized patient demographics in a retrospective single-surgeon cohort undergoing preoperative clinical fMRI at a Canadian centre. Our experience suggests an acceptable wait time from scan request to scan completion/analysis and from scan to intervention.
Children treated for medulloblastoma (MB) exhibit long-term impairments in declarative memory, but the pathophysiology underlying this is unclear. Previous studies report declines in global white matter volume, but have failed to link this to declines in memory performance. We examined the effects of treatment on measures of global brain structure (i.e., total white and gray matter volume) and specific memory structures (i.e., hippocampus and uncinate fasciculus). We used volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in pediatric survivors of MB and one survivor of astrocytoma treated with cranial-spinal radiation (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 13). Compared to controls, the survivor group exhibited reduced white matter volume, damage to the uncinate fasciculus, and a smaller right hippocampus. Critically, reduced hippocampal volume was not related to differences in brain volume, suggesting that the hippocampus may be especially vulnerable to treatment effects. A subset of the survivors (n = 10) also underwent memory testing using the Children's Memory Scale (CMS). Performance on the general index of the CMS was significantly correlated with measures of hippocampal volume and uncinate fasciculus. The examination of treatment effects on specific brain regions provides a better understanding of long-term cognitive outcome in children with brain tumors, particularly medulloblastoma. (JINS, 2014, 1, 1–13)
The British architect John Voelcker (1927–72) was a founding member of the small international, avantgarde group, Team 10 (1953–81), an outgrowth of the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM). Voelcker was one of six authors of the document, ‘Doorn Manifesto’, a ‘Statement on Habitat’ that emphasised ‘vital human associations’. The Manifesto appeared in 1954, one year after Voelcker exhibited the ‘Zone’, his Architectural Association senior thesis and one of the first acknowledged Team 10 efforts, in Aix-en-Provence at the ninth CIAM meeting (1953). The Zone (on which he collaborated with Pat Crooke and Andrew Derbyshire between 1951 and 1952), as well as a north London dwelling that he designed for Humphrey Lyttelton (1957–58), and his contribution to agricultural vernacular building projects in Kent, are prototypical examples of Team 10's work. Voelcker's distance from the large-scale, analytical rationalism of CIAM and his interest in a socialminded vernacular aligned him with Team 10. Voelcker eventually published three articles on Team 10: the most notable one in Arena (1965), as well as another in Architects' Year Book (1957) and a third in Carré bleu (February 1960). These situate him plausibly as a historian of the group. In one of these essays Voelcker advocates an ‘open aesthetic’ that is not clearly defined, but that implicitly calls on architects to avoid imposing pre-ordained symbols and to include references to the past in their designs without, however, being rigidly imitative, as was the case, he argues, with the deleterious medieval features of Milan's Torre Velasca (1957) designed by BBPR.
Since the late 1990s, as the typical American family saw its income stagnate, the availability of easy credit and cheap imports fueled a consumer and real estate market boom. Households were able to use debt to supplement earnings and thereby live beyond their means, under the illusion of prosperity. The housing bubble and low interest rates added to the illusion as households were encouraged to increase borrowing, using the rising equity in their homes as collateral to fund additional consumption and investment in housing.
The conditions that produced this consumer boom were less comfortable for investors and financial intermediaries. Low interest rates and the large volume of Asian savings in the market not only depressed returns on traditional financial instruments. It also generated increasing pressure from investors for higher yields which could be achieved in essentially two ways: higher risk and higher leverage. Many opted for both, using the booming property markets as fuel. In 2007, however, the US sub-prime bubble burst, plunging the global money markets and economy into crisis and revealing serious imbalances in the system as a whole.
The association of alcohol and fibre intake with breast cancer may be mediated by circulating sex hormone levels, which are predictors of breast cancer risk.
To evaluate the relationship of alcohol and dietary fibre intake with circulating sex hormone levels among premenopausal women.
A total of 205 premenopausal women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and after 2 years; blood samples taken at the same time were analysed for circulating sex hormone concentrations, including oestrone (E1), oestradiol (E2), free E2, progesterone, androstenedione and sex hormone-binding globulin, by radioimmunoassay. We used mixed models to estimate least-square means of sex hormone concentrations for alcohol intake categories and quartiles of dietary intake.
After adjustment for covariates, alcohol consumption was moderately associated with higher circulating oestrogen levels; those who consumed more than one drink per day had 20% higher E2 (Ptrend = 0.07) levels than non-drinkers. In contrast, higher dietary fibre intake was associated with lower serum levels of androstenedione (−8% between the lowest and highest quartiles of intake, Ptrend = 0.06), but not oestrogens. Similarly, consumption of fruits (−12%, Ptrend = 0.03), vegetables (−9%, Ptrend = 0.15) and whole grains (−7%, Ptrend = 0.07) showed inverse associations with androstenedione levels.
The consistency of the observed differences in sex hormone levels associated with alcohol and fibre-rich foods indicates that these nutritional factors may affect sex hormone concentrations and play a role in breast cancer aetiology and prevention.
The seismology and physics of localized structures beneath the surface of the Sun takes on a special significance with the completion in 2006 of a solar cycle of observations by the ground-based Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and by the instruments on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Of course, the spatially unresolved Birmingham Solar Oscillation Network (BiSON) has been observing for even longer. At the same time, the testing of models of stellar structure moves into high gear with the extension of deep probes from the Sun to other solar-like stars and other multi-mode pulsators, with ever-improving observations made from the ground, the success of the MOST satellite, and the recently launched CoRoT satellite. Here we report the current state of the two closely related and rapidly developing fields of helio- and asteroseimology.
Soya foods may protect against the development of breast cancer. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is under investigation as a possible link between nutrition and cancer. We examined the effect of soya foods on circulating IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (BP)-3 levels among 196 healthy premenopausal women in a 2-year randomised nutritional trial. The intervention group consumed two daily servings of soya foods including tofu, soya milk, soya nuts and soya protein powder (equivalent to 50 mg isoflavones and 5–22 g soya protein per serving); the controls maintained their regular diet. Five serum samples at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were collected in the morning during the luteal phase and analysed for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 by double-antibody ELISA. We applied mixed models to investigate the intervention effect and predictors of serum levels while considering the repeated measurement design. Adherence with the study regimen was high and dropout rates were acceptable. Randomisation resulted in similar mean IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels by group. We did not observe a significant intervention effect on IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and their molar ratio during the entire study period. However, urinary isoflavone excretion during the study period was positively associated with IGF-1 (P=0·04) and the IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio (P=0·06). The effect was consistent over time. Adding soya foods to the diet of premenopausal women does not appear to lower serum levels of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3; if anything, the greater protein intake from soya may lead to a small increase in IGF-1 serum levels.
Background. There is empirical evidence suggesting that individuals with bulimia nervosa vary considerably in terms of psychiatric co-morbidity and personality functioning. In this study, latent profile analysis was used to attempt to identify clusters of bulimic subjects based on psychiatric co-morbidity and personality.
Method. A total of 178 women with bulimia nervosa or a subclinical variant of bulimia nervosa completed a series of self-report inventories of co-morbid psychopathology and personality, and also provided a buccal smear sample for genetic analyses.
Results. Three clusters of bulimic women were identified: an affective-perfectionistic cluster, an impulsive cluster, and a low co-morbid psychopathology cluster. The clusters showed expected differences on external validation tests with both personality and eating-disorder measures. The impulsive cluster showed the highest elevations on dissocial behavior and the lowest scores on compulsivity, while the affective-perfectionistic cluster showed the highest levels of eating-disorder symptoms. The clusters did not differ on genetic variations of the serotonin transporter gene.
Conclusions. This study corroborates previous findings suggesting that the bulimia nervosa diagnostic category is comprised of three classes of individuals based on co-morbid psychopathology and personality. These differences may have significant etiological and treatment implications.
A new hydration rate is presented for the Government Mountain-Sitgreaves Peak obsidian source in Arizona. It is based on an analysis of hydration measurements from a series of independently dated obsidian artifacts from that source. Since obsidian obtained from Government Mountain-Sitgreaves Peak was widely traded in the prehistoric Southwest, the new hydration rate should provide archaeologists working in many parts of the Southwest with a reliable and inexpensive absolute dating technique.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.