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Resistance to colistin, a last resort antibiotic, has emerged in India. We investigated colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae(ColR-KP) in a hospital in India to describe infections, characterize resistance of isolates, compare concordance of detection methods, and identify transmission events.
Retrospective observational study.
Case-patients were defined as individuals from whom ColR-KP was isolated from a clinical specimen between January 2016 and October 2017. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were confirmed by broth microdilution (BMD). Isolates underwent colistin susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and whole-genome sequencing. Medical records were reviewed.
Of 846 K. pneumoniae isolates, 34 (4%) were colistin resistant. In total, 22 case-patients were identified. Most (90%) were male; their median age was 33 years. Half were transferred from another hospital; 45% died. Case-patients were admitted for a median of 14 days before detection of ColR-KP. Also, 7 case-patients (32%) received colistin before detection of ColR-KP. All isolates were resistant to carbapenems and susceptible to tigecycline. Isolates resistant to colistin by Vitek 2 were also resistant by BMD; 2 ColR-KP isolates were resistant by disk diffusion. Moreover, 8 multilocus sequence types were identified. Isolates were negative for mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes. Based on sequencing analysis, in-hospital transmission may have occurred with 8 case-patients (38%).
Multiple infections caused by highly resistant, mcr-negative ColR-KP with substantial mortality were identified. Disk diffusion correlated poorly with Vitek 2 and BMD for detection of ColR-KP. Sequencing indicated multiple importation and in-hospital transmission events. Enhanced detection for ColR-KP may be warranted in India.
Indian railway systems are fourth largest in the world, and cause on average 15 deaths daily due to various intentional and unintentional reasons. This study presents a 5-year retrospective data analysis of polytrauma patients with train-related injuries.
To highlight key lessons learned from data analysis to inform better safety measures and laws.
Trauma registry data between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed for patients with train-related injuries. Data from 726 patients were analyzed for demographics, event, injuries, management, and final outcome. ISS was used to quantify the extent of injury.
Mean patient age was 33 years with an 86% to 14% male to female ratio. 62% of patients were in the 20- to 40-year age group. Average time of arrival at health facility post-injury was 3.3 hours. Half of the patients were trespassers. Mean ISS was 11.65. Chest injuries were present in 24.6% of patients, with half requiring interventions like ICD insertion or surgery. 20% of patients underwent amputations of extremities. 40% of patients needed admission to the ICU. 3.5% died in the Emergency Department (ED). Mean hospital stay was 17 days with an in-hospital mortality of 17.4%.
This analysis is the largest to date showing comprehensive injury patterns and outcomes of train-related injuries from a developing country. Patients injured on the platform and off the platform had the same severity of injuries. This analysis shows the need for safety measures and strict law enforcement both at the station and at the track.